Principles of Forensic Science

Sources:A Closer Look On Forensic Science written by Archana Singh

laws.pngLaws and Principles of Forensic Science

Introduction

Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science.

Every object, natural or man-made, has an individuality which is not duplicated in any other object.

1. Law of Individuality

Anything and everything involved in a crime, has an individuality. If the same is established, it connects the crime and the criminal.

This principle at first sight appears to be contrary to common beliefs and observations. The grains of sand or common salt, seeds of plants or twins look exactly alike.

2. Principle of exchange

Contact exchange traces is principle of exchange. It was first enunciated by the French scientist, Edmond Locard. Commonly known as Edmond Locard’s maxim on Interchange.

According to the principle, when a criminal or his instruments of crime come in contact with the victim or the objects surrounding him, they leave traces. Likewise, the criminal or his instruments pick up traces from the same contact.

3. Law of progressive change

“Change is inevitable” , this also applies to object. Different types of objects may take different time spans.

The criminal undergoes progressive changes. If he is not apprehended in time, he becomes unrecognizable.

The scene of occurrence undergoes rapid changes. The weather, the vegetable growth, and the living beings make extensive changes in comparatively short periods.

Samples degrade with time, Bodies decompose, tire tracks & bite marks fade, the firearm barrel loosen, metal objects rust, etc.

4. Principle of comparison

“Only the likes can be compared” is the principle of comparison.

It emphasize the necessity of providing like samples and specimens for comparisons with the questioned items.

A questioned hair can only be compared to another hair sample, same with tool marks, bite marks, tire marks, etc.

For example

A specimen obtained by writing on the same wall, at the same height and with the same instrument and then photographed. It can be matched.

Once handwriting available on a photograph allegedly written on a wall was compared with the specimen written on paper. It did not give worthwhile results.

5. Principle of analysis

The Analysis can be no better than the sample analyzed.

Improper sampling and contamination render the best analysis useless.

The principle emphasizes the necessity of correct sampling and correct packing for effective use of experts.

6. Law of probability

All identification, definite or indefinite, are made, consciously or unconsciously, on the basis of probability.

Probability is mostly misunderstood. If we say that according to probability a particular fingerprint has come from the given source, but it is not a definite opinion.

Probability is a mathematical concept. It determines the chances of occurrence of a particular event in a particular way.

If “P” represents probability, “Ns” the number of ways in which the event can successfully occur (with equal facility) and “Nf” the number of ways in which it can fail ( with equal facility) , the probability of success is given by the formula:

7. Law Of Circumstantial Facts

“facts do not lie, men can and do”

Evidences given by eye witnesses or victims may not always be accurate.

Sometimes victims may intentionally lie or sometimes because of poor senses (such as low sight, unclear hearing), exaggeration & assumptions.

According to Karl Marx “True belief only becomes knowledge when backed by some kind of investigation and evidence”.

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Laws & Principles of Forensic Science

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Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science…READ MORE….

via Laws and Principles of Forensic Science — Forensic’s blog

Forensic Expert via The Forensic Science Public Desk, India

Who is an Expert?

I am an expert in doing sketches. How? I am passionate about sketching and drawing since my childhood and still, I practice it. I take a very short time to do any kind of sketch within few minutes compared to the capability of any other common human. Hence, It can be said as he has expertise in the art of sketching and he has knowledge on sketching where he can form an opinion or comment on other work whether it is authentic, truly hard work, commendable work or possibilities and what were the possible ingredients used to make a certain sketch.

So that was an example which gives us a better understanding of who is an expert.

A person who has special knowledge and skill in a particular branch of learning and thus qualified to give his opinion, whereas, an ordinary person is not competent to do so.

Thus, Doctors, artists, engineers, surveyors, engravers, mechanics, artisans, and the diverse classes of specifically skilled workmen would all be experts within the meaning of the expert, of course, each in his walk of life.

How can you be one? 

Crimes are associated with the number of evidence like blood, bullet or a dead body. Identification or classifying any of this would easy due to definite science which is available as the experience of individuals working with a field like serologists, Ballistic experts or Doctors. This particular aspect can be learnt and it can apply to

Section 45 in The Indian Evidence Act, 1872

Opinions of experts.—When the Court has to form an opinion upon a point of foreign law or science or art.

What is foreign law or science or art? Means, Court is represented by personnel’s dealing with law and justice enforced for public welfare. I pursuit of justice there are certain aspects which are also involved like science. Representatives of court, that is judges or law Practitioners are not aware of these particular sciences like serology or physics or medicine nor they can complete the degree in few days nor they can be unethical by justifying anything on their own. They are knowledgeable personnel’s in enacting law and justice for public welfare but not to justify truth hidden within the scientific evidence like nature of injury on the body or striation marks on the bullet.

Hence, the Court needs to rely on expert opinion to understand the significant scientific evidence role of any kind of case dealt with in the court.

Examples

Doctor: As to ascertain the cause of death or time since death

Chemical examiner: identification of a questioned substance by conducting chemical examination which approved by scientific statutory bodies.

Ballistics expert: identification of alleged firearm by comparing test-fired bullet and questioned bullet.

Court believes science-based literature, research held and scientific principles or laws developed during a search of the reality behind happenings of many unknown things to mankind.

Whom will you handover the evidence to?

Just imagine if you are having an Evidence which is a “Document with disputed signature, questioned age of ink in the signature and contents on the questioned document” Whom will you handover the evidence to?

One who has just completed Masters in Forensic Science – has experience practice with demo samples or simulated samples or experience while in internship or project under the supervision of an expert. The court cannot rely on you leaving behind qualified experts but you should be having the capability to convince the court in the science subject matter thus makes you an expert. Anybody one who can prove or involve in the scientific examination of the evidence on the grounds of being intellectual in scientific principles and law which are in current practice by many of the recognized scientists can be referred and can be used to prove the truth hidden with evidence. This can be regarded as the private practice of forensic consultancy.

According to IEA 45, an opinion formed by an expert is based on recognized principles regulating the scientific study. The opinion so formed by a person having the necessary special skill in the subject is, therefore, the opinion of an expert in that branch of the science. Such an opinion is the opinion of an expert in a branch of science which is admissible in evidence under Section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act. (or)

One who has 10 years of experience dealing with similar types of cases as an expert – Similar kind of cases here means, there is plenty of complications involved in dealing with crime evidence. Hence, Experience will be vast and much expertise in nature. Many of the times experts may fail to form an opinion and where by the court will justify such conflict by itself being expert by considering other circumstantial evidence and facts of the case. Under section 73 IEA.

Though Section 73 deals with Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or proved. It has also relevance with the explanation given for court expertise.

Patna High Court State (Through Cbi) vs S.J. Choudhary on 13 February, 1996

Are there any designated experts recognized by the court?

Yes, Forensic Science Laboratories personnel’s under section 293 says Reports of certain Government scientific experts. Subsection 4 applies to the Government scientific experts, namely:-

(a) any Chemical Examiner or Assistant Chemical Examiner to Government; of Forensic Science Laboratories or Govt. Chemical Examiners Laboratory.

(b) the Chief Inspector of- Explosives; current position is Joint Chief Controller of Explosives (HOD) of Petroleum & Explosives Safety Organization (PESO).

(c) the Director of the Finger Print Bureau; both state level and central level.

(d) the Director, Haffkeine Institute, Bombay; as a bacteriology research Centre called the “Plague Research Laboratory”. It now offers various basic and applied biomedical science services.

(e) Director, Deputy Director or Assistant Director] of a Central Forensic Science Laboratory or a State Forensic Science Laboratory;

(f) the Serologist to the Government. Head of Institute of Serology that is Serologist & Chemical examiner or Assistant serologists.

So these people are regarded as experts in the court officially or they can also appoint assistants working with case actually under subsection 3 of Cr.P.C 293

 

This article will help to understand forensic expertise, the role of an expert in criminal justice system by providing suitable examples accordingly Indian Evidence Act Sections 45 & 73 and also gives a glance on government scientific experts under section 293 of Criminal Procedure Code.

via Forensic Expert — Forensic Science Public Desk, India

Arson Investigation Dogs Can Detect Traces of Gasoline as small as 1 Billionth of a Teaspoon via Crime Scene to Court 

Arson Canine  East  Texas Nina Lab ATF
ATF ADC, Nina
Photo: Mark Moore; Gregg County, Texas Fire Marshal

New research out of the University of Alberta – Canada, finds that dogs can detect gasoline in quantities as small as one billionth of a teaspoon.

Daisy, an accelerant detection canine from Westchester County, New York works with her partner Detective John V. Peters.
Photo: US Fire Administration

Canines have been used in arson investigations for about 30 years, beginning when the US ATF partnered up with the Connecticut State Police in 1986 to train an accelerant detecting canine (ADC) named Mattie.

Mattie was a Labrador Retriever, working for the Connecticut State Police, and she was trained to alert to 17 different ignitable liquids. We all know that Mattie and her kind have an incredible sense of smell, but just how sensitive, is amazing.

Dogs typically have about 200 million receptor cells in their noses that help them identify scents and odors, compared to about 5 million cells in a human nose. Further increasing their sense of smell is an organ located in the roof of their mouths that allows them to basically “taste” a smell.

Mando the Chihuahua
Mando

Just like a human, a dog can smell an odor that comes directly from an item, and like us, they can smell an odor left on a surface after the source of the odor has been removed, the difference is that a dog’s sense of smell eclipses ours, and it even beats electronic equipment designed for hydrocarbon detection.

In fact, man made odor detecting devices detect hydrocarbon components in the neighborhood of parts per million, where dogs an detect amounts as small as .01 micro liters. And if that wasn’t enough to favor the dog, a dog pinpoints the area of the source odor, where a man made instrument cannot.

Lastly, a dog can actually differentiate between true accelerants and similar gases that an instrument cannot do.

K9’s are often used in arson investigation, allowing investigators to locate items and debri that presumptively contains accelerants. These areas shown as “hits” by the dog will be collected, and sent to a lab for scientific analysis.

Click the link below for more info on accelerant detecting K9’s.

 

via Arson Investigation Dogs Can Detect Traces of Gasoline Down to 1 Billionth of a Teaspoon — Crime Scene to Court 

How to Catch a Liar via Brainwave Science

According to Brainwave Science an average person hears about 200 lies every day. It is no surprise as we learn how to lie in our early development stages and by the time we become adults, we get pro at lying! The only catch here is the question, ‘how to catch a liar?’

Technological advancements in different fields of crime scene investigation have drastically changed the landscape. Today, law enforcement can use technology to detect and solve criminal activity happening at the moment. The approach is more proactive than reactive. Forensic Science has completely changed the way crimes are investigated, prosecuted, and adjudicated.

Biometrics work very well to confirm the identity of the person. They are being utilized in ID cards, bank cards, phones, and other technological devices and come in various forms such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, and the spatial geometry of the faces, etc. Biometric systems must be able to accommodate changes to the biometric over time which may be caused by aging, illness, or injury.  Let us not forget though that external subject identification via its Automated Biometrics Identification System aims to ensure national security and public safety. It can only, however, identify the person’s identity externally, but not the mind and schemes of the person.

Brain Fingerprinting – This technique is quite ideal for discovering if a piece of information is collected in a person’s brain through EEG. It correctly measures the electric brainwaves science which helps us tap into the person’s familiarity with the crime scene. The major challenge in using this technique is the need for extensive training and the cumbersome nature of software and hardware application needs specialized neuroscientists to administer tests that may not be learned by investigators. It is more of a service-based model where the expert is needed to constantly conduct testing.

iCognative technology is the only available neuroscience-based forensic technology that is over 99.9% accurate, applicable in almost all investigations, is based on proven P300 science, has been used in over 100 real-life cases, and is virtually unbeatable. Today many countries and intelligence agencies in the world are already reaping the benefits afforded by it. To top it all it supports human rights and eliminates torture.

iCognative technology:

  • identifies criminals from innocents, detects presence or absence or information in the brain
  • specifically screens privileged information holders, specific training like IED/EOD bomb-making
  • helps apprehend terrorism and crime supporters and sympathizers
  • helps identify foot soldiers from kingpins in organized crimes
  • successfully detects intent to harm and cause violence

distinguishes between witness and perpetrator

DNA and Fingerprints are the first go-to methods for all investigations. They are accepted as a piece of evidence in the court of law. However, the issue with them is that the crime scene must remain uncorrupted and the collection of evidence must be done properly to eliminate cross-contamination. Preservation of these evidence is also a labor-intensive task that must be conducted by professionals who have been extensively trained in this field.

Lie Detector/Polygraphs are not accepted as evidence but are extensively used by law enforcement agencies to eliminate innocents from the suspects. The accuracy rates of Lie detectors or Polygraph has been hotly debated. People are able to beat them, and the interpretation of results is done subjectively by the examiner. Most psychologists agree that there is little evidence that polygraph tests can accurately detect lies – American psychological Association (APA)

 

Did you know that an average person hears about 200 lies every day? It is no surprise as we learn how to lie in our early development stages and by the time we become adults, we get pro at lying! The only catch here is the question, ‘how to catch a liar?’ Technol

UK COVID-19 Stratagy: “The key is to Remove Restrictions from those segments of the population that are at low risk of Death from Infection” via Iowa EDU

By Nic Lewis The current approach A study by the COVID-19 Response Team from Imperial College (Ferguson et al. 2020[i]) appears to be largely responsible for driving UK government policy actions. The lockdown imposed in the UK appears, unsurprisingly, to have slowed the growth of COVID-19 infections, and may well soon lead to total active […]

via A sensible COVID-19 exit strategy for the UK — Iowa Climate Science Education

Maggot Analysis with Mass Spectrometry via Locard’s Lab

A new proof-of-concept study by researchers at the University at Albany in New York has developed a mass spectrometry-based technique for the rapid species prediction of blow fly larvae for use in forensic investigations.

Entomological evidence (evidence relating to insects) has proven invaluable to forensic investigations for decades, particularly in the estimation of time since death. Insects which feed on decomposing remains, known as necrophagous insects, will colonise a body in a reasonably predictable pattern, with different insects arriving at different stages throughout the decomposition process. Different species of flies, beetles and mites are commonly encountered. Blow flies in particular will often arrive at the scene within minutes of death to lay eggs on the body. As these eggs hatch, larvae (or maggots) emerge to feed on the decomposing remains. By studying the type and age of insects present at a scene, it may be possible to estimate the time since death, or postmortem interval.

The ability to achieve this hinges on the correct identification of insect species, which is unfortunately not always straightforward. The larvae of different species of blow fly are visually very similar, thus difficult to distinguish by eye. For this reason, maggots are often reared to maturity for species identification, with adult blow flies exhibiting more distinguishing physical differences. Inevitably the rearing of maggots to adulthood is a time-consuming process that requires the expertise of a forensic entomologist.

In recent years, researchers have tried to develop more rapid approaches to insect species identification, particularly using chemical analysis. Researchers at the University at Albany in New York have been applying direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) to the analysis of insect evidence to provide a rapid species identification tool. In DART-MS, the sample is placed between the DART ion source and the inlet of the mass spectrometer, allowing chemical components in the sample to be ionised and drawn into the MS for direct analysis. DART-MS requires minimal or no sample preparation and results can be obtained almost instantly. Using this technique, Rabi Musah and her team have already demonstrated the ability to determine the species of larvae, pupae and adult flies, highlighting a promising new tool in rapid species identification in forensic entomology.

However, until now this research has focused on the analysis of individual species. In a real-world scenario, maggots present on the body may consist of multiple different species, therefore any techniques developed for rapid species identification of larvae must be able to work with mixed samples. In a recent study, the team have taken the method one step further by examining the potential to identify larvae from mixed species.

Blow flies of various species were collected from Manhattan, New York. Maggots were submerged in 70% ethanol and the solution exposed to the ion source of the DART-MS to produce chemical signatures of both individual species and combinations of species. Mixtures of two, three, four, fix and six different species were analysed. Using the chemical profiles produced, a predictive model was constructed for the subsequent identification of unknown insect samples. Using this model, maggot species could be established with an accuracy of up to 94% and a confidence interval of 80-95%. Individual insect species are readily differentiated, with different species producing distinct chemical profiles. Similarly, mixtures of two different species could also be differentiated. As might be expected, samples containing a higher number of species were more difficult to differentiate.

Although only a proof-of-concept study and further validation is required, the study demonstrates that DART-MS could offer a way of rapidly determining the species of blowfly larvae, thus allowing investigators to establish which insects are present at the scene of a death and work out postmortem interval faster.

 

Beyramysoltan, S. Ventura, M. I. Rosati, J. Y. Giffen, J. E. Musah, R. A. Identification of the Species Constituents of Maggot Populations Feeding on Decomposing Remains—Facilitation of the Determination of Post Mortem Interval and Time Since Tissue Infestation through Application of Machine Learning and Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chem, 2020, In Press. 

A new proof-of-concept study by researchers at the University at Albany in New York has developed a mass spectrometry-based technique for the rapid species prediction of blow fly larvae for use in forensic investigations. Entomological evidence (evidence relating to insects) has proven invaluable to forensic investigations for decades, particularly in the estimation of time since […]

via Maggot Analysis with Mass Spectrometry — Locard’s Lab

ISP forensic dashboard provides accountability & transparency —WCIA.com

ILLINOIS (WCIA) — The Illinois State Police Forensic Services Command (FSC) unveiled a new resource to provide more transparency and accountability to the public. A forensics dashboard, updated monthly, will show the number of case assignments and completion times including details for each section of the lab, the average number of days it took to […]

via ISP forensic dashboard provides accountability & transparency — WCIA.com

4 alternative ways to analyze personality via Inspiring enlightened living

“Why am I as I am? To understand that of any person, his whole life, from birth must be reviewed. All of our experiences fuse into our personality. Everything that ever happened to us is an ingredient.” ― Malcolm X, The Autobiography of Malcolm The dawning of a new year brings a fresh opportunity to […]

via 4 alternative ways to analyse personality — Inspiring enlightened living

#Forensics: Contextual bias influences jury outcomes via CSIDDS

When police lab results are weak or ambiguous, juries commonly use non science circumstances to increase its value. https://phys.org/news/2019-10-csi-current-impact-bias-crime.html

via #Forensics: Contextual bias influences and weak forensic testing results leads to jury overestimation of guilt — FORENSICS and LAW in FOCUS @ CSIDDS | News and Trends

$7.5M Award paid for BIASED evidence analysis via FOX6Now.com

MILWAUKEE —  Robert Lee Stinson spent 23 years in prison for a crime he did not commit. Now, he is finally getting justice for a conviction based on flawed evidence. His long-awaited day in court came amid a national effort to put forensic science on trial.

 

For decades, television shows have conditioned people to believe that people can pinpoint a criminal suspect with a shoe print, tire mark, or a single strand of hair, and they can do it with absolute certainty. However, the advent of DNA technology has proven that other forensic disciplines, once thought to be bulletproof, are susceptible. Those errors have put hundreds, if not thousands, of innocent people in prison.

The conviction and exoneration of Robert Lee Stinson

When Robert Lee Stinson walked out of New Lisbon Correctional Center at the age of 44, his smile revealed a full set of teeth.

“It’s been a long time. Twenty-three years. I was accused of something I didn’t do,” Stinson said when he was released in 2009.

More than two decades earlier, one of those teeth was missing, and that’s all it took to convict him of murder.

“That was essentially the case. The whole case against Mr. Stinson,” said Keith Findley, co-founder of the Center for Integrity in Forensic Sciences.

In fall 1984, the body of 63-year-old Ione Cychosz was discovered in the backyard of a home near 7th and Center. She’d been raped and beaten to death. There were bite marks all over her skin.

“Whoever left these bite marks had some irregular dentition,” Findley explained.

Milwaukee police brought in a dental expert from Marquette University to examine the marks. Doctor L. Thomas Johnson helped police develop a sketch, which showed the killer would likely have a cracked or missing upper right tooth.

“It’s a difficult job,” Dr. Johnson said during a 2007 interview with FOX6 about forensic odontology.

Stinson lived just steps from the crime scene, and had a missing upper right tooth.

“The detectives closed this case after seeing Mr. Stinson,” said Heather Lewis Donnell, Stinson’s attorney since 2009.

The jury never saw the sketch, which showed a different tooth missing than the one in Stinson’s mouth, but they did hear Dr. Johnson say that the bite marks “had to have come” from Stinson. There was no margin for error. A second expert agreed.

“So they were saying, ‘It has to be him,'” Lewis Donnell explained.

She said the level of certainty the dental experts relayed to the jury in 1985 was never supported by the science.

“That they had the ability, their science had the ability to say, ‘It was this person, and only this person,'” Lewis Donnell said.

“It’s really kind of preposterous,” Findley said.

Twenty-three years would pass before Findley and the Wisconsin Innocence Project would prove the doctors were wrong.

“Did you ever think this would come?” a reporter asked Stinson after his 2009 release.

“No, I didn’t. No, I didn’t, but with the help of the Innocence Project — came through,” Stinson responded.

DNA technology would eventually identify the real killer as Moses Price, but Findley said the bite mark analysis that put Stinson away instead was flawed from the start, and more recent research proves it.

“It’s essentially junk,” Findley said.

Questioning bite mark analysis

For more than 50 years, Dr. Johnson was a pioneer in the field of forensic odontology. He led a team of dentists that identified victims of the 1985 Midwest Airlines crash, and he helped police identify the remains of victims dismembered by serial killer Jeffery Dahmer.

However, Findley said using bite marks to solve crimes is an entirely different process.

“Matching human remains is not the problem. Matching bite marks to a particular individual is a huge problem,” Findley said.

Matching actual teeth to actual dental records is precise, but a growing body of research finds that bite marks left on the skin are unreliable, because skin is a terrible medium for retaining bite mark indentations.

“Because skin is malleable,” Lewis Donnell explained.

“It stretches. It bloats. You bruise in funny patterns,” Findley explained further. “And that’s where the science has completely fallen apart.”

Study after study now questions the validity of bite mark analysis, with one expert calling it “the poster child for bad forensic science.” A 2009 report by The National Academy of Sciences went further, citing “serious problems” across the entire “forensic science system,” from fingerprints to firearms, and footwear to hair comparison.

Changing the face of forensic science

It was that government report and another that followed in 2016 that ultimately prompted Findley to join some of the nation’s leading criminal defense experts in launching The Center for Integrity in Forensic Sciences. The first symposium was held in June at Northwestern University.

“This is one of our inaugural events,” Findley said during the symposium. “We can’t wait for the federal government to fix this.”

“We want to ensure that the science we’re producing is reliable and defendable,” said Jennifer Naugle, deputy administrator of the Wisconsin State Crime Lab.

Naugle said she’s on board with improving the science behind forensic science.

“‘The only thing we’re trying to do is seek the truth through science. That’s it. That’s really all it is,” Naugle said.

She said a 2016 report by the Obama Administration unfairly lumped more reliable techniques used every day, like fingerprint and firearms analysis, with things like hair and bite mark analysis, which has been largely discredited.

“That’s not something we would ever do at the Wisconsin State Crime Lab,” Naugle said.

“We’re not suggesting that all of the forensic disciplines are useless. They’re not, but what we are suggesting is that they need to be improved,” Findley said.

Dr. Johnson retired in 2013, but the following year, he published his final study on bite mark analysis. It concluded it is sometimes possible to narrow the source of a human bite mark to about 5% of the population. In other words, nowhere near a precise individual match. The FOX6 Investigators contacted Dr. Johnson by telephone, but he is 93 years old and unable to hear well. His wife declined an interview on his behalf.

Now that Dr. Johnson is retired, there is only one board-certified forensic odontologist in Wisconsin — Dr. Donald Simley in Madison. He declined an interview for this story because Dr. Johnson is a close personal friend and mentor. Dr. Simley has not testified in a bite mark case since 2003. While he believes there is still value in this type of evidence, he said police are better off swabbing a bite mark for DNA than trying to match a suspect’s teeth.

Across the country,  the Innocence Project has exonerated more than 160 people who were convicted with flawed forensic evidence, including 10 because of bite marks.

“This evidence is dreadful,” said Jennifer Mnookin, UCLA School of Law, during the symposium.

Yet, bite mark evidence is still admissible in more states, including Wisconsin, where, ironically, Stinson’s case still serves as the legal precedent.

“Even though Stinson has now been conclusively exonerated, and the bite mark evidence in his case has been shown to be false,” Findley said.

Robert Lee Stinson seeks justice in federal court

Ten years after Stinson’s release, his federal civil rights case against the dentists and the City of Milwaukee finally went to trial.

“There was a lot of powerful and moving testimony,” Lewis Donnell said.

Just before the case went to the jury, they settled out of court. The City of Milwaukee will pay Stinson $7.5 million. Stinson’s attorney said the remaining terms of the settlement — including any amount other defendants have agreed to pay — will remain confidential.

“We’re just really grateful that this is how it ended, and that Mr. Stinson got some measure of justice after all he’s been through,” said Lewis Donnell.

Thirty-four years later, Stinson can finally move on, but the injustice he endured is sure to leave a mark.

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MILWAUKEE — He spent 23 years in prison for a crime he did not commit. Now, a Milwaukee man is finally getting justice for a conviction based on flawed evidence. His long-awaited day in court came amid a national effort to put forensic science on trial. For decades, television shows have conditioned people to believe that people can pinpoint a criminal suspect with a shoe print, tire mark, or a single strand of hair, and they can do it with […]

via ‘It’s essentially junk:’ $7.5M bite mark settlement underscores national call for better forensic evidence — FOX6Now.com