Biometrics — Forensic’s blog

INTRODUCTION

✴ The term “biometrics” is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “metrics” (to measure).
✴ Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
✴ Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people’s unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
✴ Biometrics allows a person to be identified and authenticated based on a set of recognizable and verifiable data, which are unique and specific to them.
✴ Biometrics authentication is the process of comparing data for the person’s characteristics in order to determine resemblance.

CHARACTERISTCS

1. UNIVERSAL
2. UNIQUE
3. INVARIABLE
4. RECORDABLE
5. MEASURABLE

HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS

🔘1858 – First systematic capture of hand images for identification purposes is recorded.
🔘1870 – Bertillon develops anthropometries to identify individuals.
🔘1892 – Galton develops a classification system for fingerprints.
🔘1896 – Henry develops a fingerprint classification system
🔘1903 – NY State Prisons begin using fingerprints.
🔘1960s – Face recognition becomes semi-automated.
🔘1960 – First model of acoustic speech production is created.
🔘1963 – Hughes research paper on fingerprint automation is published.
🔘1974- First commercial hand geometry systems become available.
🔘1976 – First prototype system for speaker recognition is developed.
🔘1986 – Exchange of fingerprint minutiae data standard is published.
🔘1988 – First semi-automated facial recognition system is deployed.
🔘1991 – Face detection is pioneered, making real time face recognition possible.
🔘1992 – Biometric Consortium is established within US Government.
🔘1994 – Palm System is benchmarked.
🔘1996 – Hand geometry is implemented at the Olympic Games.
🔘1996 – NIST begins hosting annual speaker recognition evaluations.
🔘1997 – First commercial, generic biometric interoperability standard is published.
🔘1998- FBI launches COOlS (DNA forensic database).
🔘1999 – FBI’s IAFIS major components become operational.
🔘2001 – Face recognition is used at the Super Bowl in Tampa, Florida.
🔘2002 – ISO/IEC standards committee on biometrics is established.
🔘2004 – First statewide automated palm print databases are deployed in the US.
🔘2008 – U.S. Government begin coordinating biometric database use.
🔘2010 – U.S. national security apparatus utilizes biometrics for terrorist identification.
🔘2011 – Biometric identification used to identify body of Osama bin Laden.

TYPES OF BIOMETRICS

Biometrics Can Be Divided Into Three Main Categories Of Characteristics:
1. BIOLOGICAL
2. MORPHOLOGICAL
3. BEHAVIORAL

⏩DNA MATCHING

The identification of an individual using the analysis of segments from DNA.

👂EAR

The identification of an individual using the shape of the ear.

👀EYES – IRIS RECOGNITION & RETINA RECOGNITION

👁IRIS RECOGNITION- The use of the features found in the iris to identify an individual.
👁RETINA RECOGNITION- The use of patterns of veins in the back of the eye to accomplish recognition.

👱‍♂️FACE RECOGNITION

The analysis of facial features or patterns for the authentication or recognition of an individuals identity.

🤘FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION

The use of the ridges and valleys (minutiae) found on the surface tips of a human finger to identify an individual.

👋FINGER GEOMETRY RECOGNITION

The use of 3D geometry of the finger to determine identity.

🤚HAND GEOMETRY RECOGNITION

The use of the geometric features of the hand such as the lengths of fingers and the width of the hand to identify an individual.

🙌VEIN RECOGNITION

Vein recognition is a type of biometrics that can be used to identify individuals based on the vein patterns in the human finger or palm.

👃ODOUR

The use of an individuals odour to determine identity.

✍SIGNATURE RECOGNITION

The authentication of an individual by the analysis of handwriting style, specifically the signature. Technology is available to check two scanned signatures using advances algorithms.

👩‍💻TYPING RECOGNITION

The use of the unique characteristics of a persons typing for establishing identity.

🗣VOICE / SPEAKER RECOGNITION

There are two major applications of speaker recognition:
🙊Voice – Speaker Verification / Authentication
🙊Voice – Speaker Identification
✔In forensic applications, it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of “best matches” and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match.
✔Voice recognition analyzes audio input for specific patterns in speech or sound. Each voice, or common noise, has a recognizable wavelength pattern that can aid in identification of a specific individual.

🚶‍♀️👣GAIT

The use of an individuals walking style or gait to determine identity.

Biometrics allows a person to be identified and authenticated based on a set of recognizable and verifiable data, which are unique and specific to them. This video covers following Points of Biometrics: 💡Introduction 💡Characteristics 💡History & 💡Types.

via Biometrics — Forensic’s blog

Advertisements

Intro to Fingerprints via Forensic’s blog

Fingerprints- An Introduction

By @forensicfield

INTRODUCTION

Everything we touched, leave behind our unique impression on it, which is Our fingerprints.

No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints.

Fingerprint identification also known as “Dactyloscopy”.

Fingerprints are the tiny ridges, whorls and valley patterns on the tip of each fingers. They develop from pressure on a baby’s tiny, developing fingers in the womb.

CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS

🧤By FRANCIS GALTON
A well-known British scientist sir Francis Galton published his first book on fingerprint in 1892. His important work include method for classification for fingerprint which are divided into three groups-
a. Arch
b. Loop
c. Whorl

🧤 By WILLIAM J. HERSHEL
While working for the East India Company in Bengal, India, Sir William James Herschel first used fingerprints on native contracts. After a decade, he had accumulated a file of fingerprints.

🧤 By EDWARD HENRY
Henry Classification of Fingerprinting was accepted as common practice throughout England and its territorial holdings and in the United States.
Under the henry system, fingerprints divided into two classes:
•Those which are given numerical value. (whorls and composites).
•Those which doesn’t give numerical value. (loops and arches).

🖐 All patters are divided as follows:

The henry classification system assigns each finger A number according to the order in which it is located in the hand, beginning with the right thumb as number 1 and ending with the left pinky as number 10.
• The system also assigns a numerical value to fingers that contain a whorl pattern; fingers 1 and 2 each have a value of 16,
• Fingers 3 and 4 = 8,
• Fingers 5 and 6 = 4,
• Fingers 7 and 8 = 2,
• Final two fingers = 1.
• Fingers with a non-whorl pattern, such as an arch or loop pattern, have a value of zero.
• The sum of the even finger value is then calculated and placed in the numerator of a fraction.
• The sum of the odd finger values is place in the denominator.
• The value of 1 is added to each sum of the whorls with the maximum obtainable on either side of the fraction begin 32.
• Thus, the primary classification is a fraction between 1/1 to 32/32, where 1/1 would indicate no whorl patterns and 32/32 would mean that all fingers had whorl patterns.

🧤 By JUAN VUCETICH
Vucetich is credited with the first positive criminal identification as, in 1892, he was able to extract a set of prints off a door and thus identify a woman as the culprit in a double homicide.

✴ CHARACTERISTICS OF FINGERPRINT

🖐 Class Characteristics
Class characteristics are the characteristics that narrow the print down to a group but not an individual.

The Three Fingerprint Class Types Are;
1. Arches:
✔Arches are the simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other. No deltas are present.
✔About 5 % of the world’s populations have arch patterns.

Arch pattern

2. Loops:
✔Loops must have one delta and one or more ridges that enter and leave on the same side. These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius and ulna bones.
✔About 60-65 % of the world’s populations have loop patterns.

Loop pattern

3. Whorls:
✔Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas.
✔About 30-35 % of the world’s populations have whorls patterns.

Whorl Pattern

👍 Individual characteristics:
👉Individual characteristics are those characteristics that are unique to an individual.
👉They are tiny irregularities that appear within the friction ridges and are referred to as Galton’s details.

Individual Characteristics of Fingerprint

Watch it🤳, share it ✌and subscribe it 👇 : –

Fingerprints-An Introduction

By @forensicfield INTRODUCTION Everything we touched, leave behind our unique impression on it, which is Our fingerprints. No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints. Fingerprint identification also known as “Dactyloscopy”. Fingerprints are the tiny ridges, whorls and valley patterns on the tip of each fingers. […]

via Fingerprints- An Introduction — Forensic’s blog

Forensic Structural Engineeringg via Australian Business Network

Structural engineering is a specialty within the field of civil engineering which focuses on the framework of structures and on designing those structures to withstand the stresses and pressures of their environment and remain safe, stable and secure throughout their use. To explain a little differently, it can be said that structural and consulting engineers […]

via Understanding The Concept Of Structural Engineering — Australian Business Network

Variables to consider when Determining Post Mortem Blood Alcohol Levels via True Crime Rocket Science / #tcrs

Immediately following the release of the autopsy reports on November 19th, I contacted Thomas Mollett, a forensic investigator, fellow true crime author and friend, and asked him his opinion on Shan’anns Blood Alcohol Levels. They were found to be three times the legal limit for driving. How likely was it, I asked, that these apparently high levels were from “normal” decomposition?

SUPPLEMENTAL

Autopsy reports show Shanann Watts, daughters were asphyxiated – TimesCall

Fullscreen capture 20181217 233710

Pathology is an extremely complex science, and many factors play into the biological processes that occur after death.

image001

The three basic pillars one uses to calculate whether the BAC is “normal” or not are related to:

  1. the time the body is exposed to the elements [here time of death is a factor, unknown in this case, but with a relatively short window either way]
  2. the ambient conditions of the body [temperature, humidity etc.]
  3. circumstantial evidence is also a vital tool to gauge alcohol content, including eye witnesses, Shan’ann’s drinking habits, and her appearance in the Ring camera footage when she arrived home [described but not released thus far]

During our first communication I miscommunicated to Mollett that Shan’ann’s corpse was recovered after only 48 hours, which I guessed wasn’t enough time to reflect the high alcohol levels found. This was an initial error on my part; it took closer to 70 hours for Shan’ann’s corpse to be discovered and exhumed.

Based on this initial miscommunication, Mollett also believed the BAC level was likely higher than a natural rate [which as I say, was also what I suspected].

I asked Mollett to investigate the BAC levels and I’m grateful to him for doing so in detail. Obviously part of his thorough investigation corrected the original 48 hour error.

Below is Mollet’s unabridged report on the BAC levels.

Fullscreen capture 20181217 230915Fullscreen capture 20181217 230922Fullscreen capture 20181217 230928Fullscreen capture 20181217 230933Fullscreen capture 20181217 230940Fullscreen capture 20181217 231003Fullscreen capture 20181217 231009Fullscreen capture 20181217 231013Fullscreen capture 20181217 231022Fullscreen capture 20181217 231028

Fullscreen capture 20181217 235348Fullscreen capture 20181217 235321Fullscreen capture 20181217 231033Fullscreen capture 20181217 231105

20181119__20TCAAUTw_1

  • Share
  • 9Comments
9 COMMENTS
  • Helen

    Helen

    I think Chris tied Shanann to the bed after she fell asleep, put a pillow case over her mouth to prevent her from screaming, made sure she watched through the monitor how he smothered Bella and Celeste, and then came back to the bedroom to strangle her.

    Reply
  • BAMS13

    BAMS13
    Helen

    You’re going to get in trouble from Nick now… lol.

    Reply
  • nickvdl

    nickvdl
    BAMS13

    Bams, can I let you take it from here? I can’t always be the one cracking the whip 😉

    Reply
  • BAMS13

    BAMS13
    nickvdl

    Haha! Always happy to try and exert my low ranking power anytime. You’d think those virtual whip cracks can be heard loud and clear though. 😉

    Reply
  • Syzia

    Syzia

    Helen took it to the next level here

    Reply
  • Marie

    Marie
    Syzia

    Oh yes syzia, I agree

    Reply
  • Karen

    Karen

    Well, that report certainly cleared up so many things. Now we know. The body certainly is a fascinating animal in death as much as life. I do know that when officer Coonrod was in the kitchen he didn’t have a peek in the sink to see if there were breakfast dishes in there to find out if the kids had eaten so we couldn’t see if there was a wine glass. Nor did I see any at all throughout his whole walk through the house. Thorough report

    Reply
  • Sylvester

    Sylvester

    “Important moments at Watt’s well site” is really stunning. I hope everyone can blow it up on a computer monitor rather than a cell phone. You really get the sense of vastness of that site – miles and miles in every direction of land dotted with wildflowers. The tank battery site even seems dwarfed in proportion to the land. As the drone makes it’s lazy pass from the air you then see the sheet, hugging the scrub. Look a little closer and you see the black garbage bags. It was rather stupid of him to discard the sheet on top of the land after it had fulfilled it’s purpose to conceal and drag. Same with the garbage bags. Maybe he thought in the vastness of the land those items, like his family, would simply vanish.

    Reply
  • Karen

    Karen
    Sylvester

    Sylvester, do you know if they sent the drone out before Chris said anything or after? For the life of me, I can’t remember. Thank you kindly

    Reply

JZ Logistics @ The Internet Truck Stop


SEND

Immediately following the release of the autopsy reports on November 19th, I contacted Thomas Mollett, a forensic investigator, fellow true crime author and friend, and asked him his opinion on Shan’anns Blood Alcohol Levels. They were found to be three times the legal limit for driving. How likely was it, I asked, that these apparently high […]

via Thomas Mollett’s Forensic Report on Shan’ann Watts’ Post Mortem Blood Alcohol Level — True Crime Rocket Science / #tcrs

8 Reasons Why I love Forensics via Emily Leong

I get to talk about topics that matter to me

In forensics, I get to choose the topics for all my speeches. This means that they’re very personal and matter a lot to me. Issues like racism, homophobia, and gun control are all topics I’ve done speeches on. Being able to have a space to express my opinions, and to hear other opinions has been really empowering for me.

I can express myself

Forensics isn’t just all formal speeches. Most of the events I do is under the interpretation genre, meaning that my speeches are more like acting than formal informative or persuasive speeches. Being able to express myself through my speeches has been a great stress reliever for me.

Creativity

Being in interpretation events, I get to have a bigger creative licence with my speeches. This allows me to get creative with what I do with my movements and gestures. This creative side of forensics turns words into art.

Life Skills

Through this activity, I’ve developed the important life skill of public speaking. Many people who have not done forensics fear public speaking, but because I have grown such an affinity for it, speeches, and class presentations are much easier, and come quite natural to me.

Community

I have met so many wonderful people through this activity. Most of my closest friends are on my team, and I’ve met so many beautiful people from other teams who are so inspiring, beautiful, and kind.

State Team Goofy

I stay informed

Most topics in Forensics are about either politics or current events. This means that I am not informed during tournaments, but motivated to read and watch more news, and stay current outside of tournaments. Staying informed on current events now has become important to my daily life.

Travel

Especially in college, forensics is a great way to travel to new places. The spring of 2018, my team traveled to Nashville, Tennessee for the Pi Kappa Delta national tournament. It was great to explore the city, and I can’t wait to have the opportunity to travel more.

Confidence Booster

Forensics has helped be able to accept constructive criticism, which is something a lot of people need to work on. It also has allowed me to feel good about the work I put into each and every one of  my speeches. Forensics has given me a space where I feel confident about myself.

Suits

Of course, a proper team is not complete without the proper attire. Suits are the norm at tournaments, and if you dig around enough on Ebay or at Goodwill, you’re able to find some great pieces. Suits can be a great conversation starter with another competitor. A good suit is essential for forensics.

Ecc Tessa Suit

 

I get to talk about topics that matter to me In forensics, I get to choose the topics for all my speeches. This means that they’re very personal and matter a lot to me. Issues like racism, homophobia, and gun control are all topics I’ve done speeches on. Being able to have a space to […]

via 8 Reasons Why I love Forensics — Emily Leong

Autopsy of a Dill Pickle-Introductory Lab for Anatomy or Forensics!

A Pickle Autopsy? YES!

If you teach Anatomy & Physiology, you know the struggle of the first unit…. it’s HUGE!! … and jam-packed with things that are absolutely essential for students to know in order to be successful in the course.  I usually struggle with finding activities to review the body cavities and directional terms.  This year, someone suggested using the pickle autopsy and I’m so glad I did!

The lab I used was published in The Forensic Teacher and would be appropriate for either discipline (I teach both this year).  Here is the link to the lab I used http://www.theforensicteacher.com/Labs_files/picklelabsheets.pdf  A clever fellow teacher friend came up with the storyline that there was a gang war between the Claussens and the Vlasics in the fridge that resulted in no survivors. I loved it so I also used that storyline to frame my lab.

Set Up– The Basics

Now that I had my lab picked out and my story to tell, I had to figure the logistics of how to get everything set up.

First, the pickles….

img_9918

I found the big jars of dills at Walmart for $5.97 each. The smaller pickles I got because I wanted some of my “victims” to be pregnant (or they could also be small children pickles lol).  I had a hard time estimating how many pickles were in the big jars, but these 2 had a total of 33 pickles– more than enough for my classes. The picture below shows them separated by “male” and “female” victims (my “male” pickles are the ones with the stems lol).

Here are all the supplies I used for the lab: img_9916

How to make them look like victims….

I glued wiggly eyes onto thumbtacks for their eyes (so I can reuse them)img_9917

I also used pellets that go in pellet guns for bullet wounds (I smashed them a little with the hammer first and dipped them into gel food coloring before I stuck them in the “victims”)img_9922

I made their heads from an olive stuck on a toothpick– some I even squished so their “brains” fell out a little lol.  I also gave all of them a “spine” (a toothpick on the dorsal side just under the skin).  I also broke several of the toothpicks so this “injury” might be discovered and included in the story of their “victim”. img_9937.jpg

All the “victims” had a bead implanted in the vicinity of their heart.  If the bead was red, they had a normal heart.  If it was black or dark purple, it represented a heart attack.  I found that if you make a slit on the side of the pickle (choose a wrinkle), it will often be completely unnoticeable and students will wonder how in the world you got those beads in there!  I also slipped in a small green bead in the neck region of a few of the “victims” and told my students I heard that some of the gang members involved in the war were caught raiding the grapes from the fridge and several choked on them when their leader caught them.

I also told them that the gang members were not healthy and many had various diseases and disorders because they didn’t take care of themselves.  Many had white beads implanted in various areas.  These beads represented a tumor in the particular area.  Knotted pieces of rubber bands in the abdominal region represented parasites.  Many had broken toothpick “limbs”.  I also had several who were pregnant.

This is the sheet of “Helpful Hints” I gave my students with their lab:

img_9941

A Snapshot of My “Victims”

I separated my “victims” into 4 general types based on their cause of death:

  1. Trauma or internal bleeding (Stabbed or gunshot, injected with red food coloring)
  2. Poisoning/ Drug Overdose (I soaked them in baking soda but didn’t get a very good result)
  3. Heart Attack (black bead instead of red bead in chest)
  4. Drowning (blue food coloring injected in chest area)

 

My “victims” had multiple things that could have resulted in their deaths, but having 4 major things just helped me keep it organized. I also put them in separate dishes while I plotted their demise 🙂 img_9926

I also kept them separate in labeled gallon ziplock bags to transport them to school. img_9927

The Lab Set Up

I set my lab up as a mini crime scene.  I had some fake vampire blood from my forensics class that I also added to help set the scene.  I also added in some extra plastic swords and pellets around the “victims”.  (I let my students pick their own “victim” from the scene). img_9948

Group Jobs

Students were in a lab group of 3 per “victim”.  In my lab, every student in the group has a specific job and job description.  It just helps my lab groups run more smoothly and tends to decrease the possibility that one student does the lion’s share of work.  These are the jobs I gave my groups for this lab: img_9936.jpg

My Take on the Pickle Autopsy Lab

Would I use it again? Absolutely!  My students became very proficient at actually using the directional terminology and identifying the body cavities that we talked about in class.  I heard many meaningful conversations within the groups… “That’s a break in his arm that’s intermediate between the shoulder and the elbow” “I think this sword went through the abdominal cavity and not the thoracic cavity”…. This was so much better than hearing them try to memorize a diagram or a chart of the directional terms!

They loved getting into our “gang warfare” story.  I had them fill out a Coroner’s Report detailing the abnormalities they found both in, and on their “victim”, as well as the location of these abnormalities.  Then, they had to determine the cause of death for their victim, supporting their opinion with specific details from their autopsy.  At all times within their report, they had to incorporate correct anatomical terminology.  Finally, they had to create a narrative of what happened to their “victim” based on the findings from their autopsy.  Several groups shared with the class.  It was lots of fun!

 

 

A Pickle Autopsy? YES! If you teach Anatomy & Physiology, you know the struggle of the first unit…. it’s HUGE!! … and jam-packed with things that are absolutely essential for students to know in order to be successful in the course. I usually struggle with finding activities to review the body cavities and directional […]

via Autopsy of a Dill Pickle- A Great Introductory Lab for Anatomy or Forensics! — Edgy Instruction

Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective Services 7th Annual Psychology Conference on 29-30 August. Keynote speaker Professor Jim Ogloff AM from @swinburne will discuss ways to reduce violence & serious sexual offending.pic.twitter.com/UmYrol3Yrj — Site Title

Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective Services 7th Annual Psychology Conference on 29-30 August. Keynote speaker Professor Jim Ogloff AM from @swinburne will discuss ways to reduce violence & serious sexual offending. pic.twitter.com/UmYrol3Yrj Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective […]

via Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective Services 7th Annual Psychology Conference on 29-30 August. Keynote speaker Professor Jim Ogloff AM from @swinburne will discuss ways to reduce violence & serious sexual offending.pic.twitter.com/UmYrol3Yrj — Site Title