Biometrics — Forensic’s blog

INTRODUCTION

✴ The term “biometrics” is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “metrics” (to measure).
✴ Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
✴ Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people’s unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
✴ Biometrics allows a person to be identified and authenticated based on a set of recognizable and verifiable data, which are unique and specific to them.
✴ Biometrics authentication is the process of comparing data for the person’s characteristics in order to determine resemblance.

CHARACTERISTCS

1. UNIVERSAL
2. UNIQUE
3. INVARIABLE
4. RECORDABLE
5. MEASURABLE

HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS

🔘1858 – First systematic capture of hand images for identification purposes is recorded.
🔘1870 – Bertillon develops anthropometries to identify individuals.
🔘1892 – Galton develops a classification system for fingerprints.
🔘1896 – Henry develops a fingerprint classification system
🔘1903 – NY State Prisons begin using fingerprints.
🔘1960s – Face recognition becomes semi-automated.
🔘1960 – First model of acoustic speech production is created.
🔘1963 – Hughes research paper on fingerprint automation is published.
🔘1974- First commercial hand geometry systems become available.
🔘1976 – First prototype system for speaker recognition is developed.
🔘1986 – Exchange of fingerprint minutiae data standard is published.
🔘1988 – First semi-automated facial recognition system is deployed.
🔘1991 – Face detection is pioneered, making real time face recognition possible.
🔘1992 – Biometric Consortium is established within US Government.
🔘1994 – Palm System is benchmarked.
🔘1996 – Hand geometry is implemented at the Olympic Games.
🔘1996 – NIST begins hosting annual speaker recognition evaluations.
🔘1997 – First commercial, generic biometric interoperability standard is published.
🔘1998- FBI launches COOlS (DNA forensic database).
🔘1999 – FBI’s IAFIS major components become operational.
🔘2001 – Face recognition is used at the Super Bowl in Tampa, Florida.
🔘2002 – ISO/IEC standards committee on biometrics is established.
🔘2004 – First statewide automated palm print databases are deployed in the US.
🔘2008 – U.S. Government begin coordinating biometric database use.
🔘2010 – U.S. national security apparatus utilizes biometrics for terrorist identification.
🔘2011 – Biometric identification used to identify body of Osama bin Laden.

TYPES OF BIOMETRICS

Biometrics Can Be Divided Into Three Main Categories Of Characteristics:
1. BIOLOGICAL
2. MORPHOLOGICAL
3. BEHAVIORAL

⏩DNA MATCHING

The identification of an individual using the analysis of segments from DNA.

👂EAR

The identification of an individual using the shape of the ear.

👀EYES – IRIS RECOGNITION & RETINA RECOGNITION

👁IRIS RECOGNITION- The use of the features found in the iris to identify an individual.
👁RETINA RECOGNITION- The use of patterns of veins in the back of the eye to accomplish recognition.

👱‍♂️FACE RECOGNITION

The analysis of facial features or patterns for the authentication or recognition of an individuals identity.

🤘FINGERPRINT RECOGNITION

The use of the ridges and valleys (minutiae) found on the surface tips of a human finger to identify an individual.

👋FINGER GEOMETRY RECOGNITION

The use of 3D geometry of the finger to determine identity.

🤚HAND GEOMETRY RECOGNITION

The use of the geometric features of the hand such as the lengths of fingers and the width of the hand to identify an individual.

🙌VEIN RECOGNITION

Vein recognition is a type of biometrics that can be used to identify individuals based on the vein patterns in the human finger or palm.

👃ODOUR

The use of an individuals odour to determine identity.

✍SIGNATURE RECOGNITION

The authentication of an individual by the analysis of handwriting style, specifically the signature. Technology is available to check two scanned signatures using advances algorithms.

👩‍💻TYPING RECOGNITION

The use of the unique characteristics of a persons typing for establishing identity.

🗣VOICE / SPEAKER RECOGNITION

There are two major applications of speaker recognition:
🙊Voice – Speaker Verification / Authentication
🙊Voice – Speaker Identification
✔In forensic applications, it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of “best matches” and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match.
✔Voice recognition analyzes audio input for specific patterns in speech or sound. Each voice, or common noise, has a recognizable wavelength pattern that can aid in identification of a specific individual.

🚶‍♀️👣GAIT

The use of an individuals walking style or gait to determine identity.

Biometrics allows a person to be identified and authenticated based on a set of recognizable and verifiable data, which are unique and specific to them. This video covers following Points of Biometrics: 💡Introduction 💡Characteristics 💡History & 💡Types.

via Biometrics — Forensic’s blog

Forensic Structural Engineeringg via Australian Business Network

Structural engineering is a specialty within the field of civil engineering which focuses on the framework of structures and on designing those structures to withstand the stresses and pressures of their environment and remain safe, stable and secure throughout their use. To explain a little differently, it can be said that structural and consulting engineers […]

via Understanding The Concept Of Structural Engineering — Australian Business Network

Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective Services 7th Annual Psychology Conference on 29-30 August. Keynote speaker Professor Jim Ogloff AM from @swinburne will discuss ways to reduce violence & serious sexual offending.pic.twitter.com/UmYrol3Yrj — Site Title

Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective Services 7th Annual Psychology Conference on 29-30 August. Keynote speaker Professor Jim Ogloff AM from @swinburne will discuss ways to reduce violence & serious sexual offending. pic.twitter.com/UmYrol3Yrj Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective […]

via Forensic psychology with an emphasis on prison-based rehabilitation is the focus of the Corrective Services 7th Annual Psychology Conference on 29-30 August. Keynote speaker Professor Jim Ogloff AM from @swinburne will discuss ways to reduce violence & serious sexual offending.pic.twitter.com/UmYrol3Yrj — Site Title

Witness: Man Was Forced to Participate in 3 Slayings to ‘Dirty His Hands’ — TIME

Three people were strangled or smothered to death in a Kansas drug home over a rape allegation and one of the suspects was forced to participate to save his life, according to court testimony. The details about the case were revealed during a preliminary hearing that ended Wednesday with Shawnee County District Judge Nancy Parrish…

via Witness: Man Was Forced to Participate in 3 Slayings to ‘Dirty His Hands’ — TIME

These are the 4 personality types that describes almost everyone, study says —

New research out of Spain suggests that almost all of humanity can fit into one of four types of personalities: optimistic, pessimistic, trusting or envious.

via These are the 4 personality types that describes almost everyone, study says —

Counteranalysis via Freud

In psychology, the term was first employed by Sigmund Freud‘s colleague Josef Breuer (1842–1925), who developed a “cathartic” treatment using hypnosis for persons suffering from extensive hysteria. While under hypnosis, Breuer’s patients were able to recall traumatic experiences, and through the process of expressing the original emotions that had been repressed and forgotten, they were relieved of their hysteric symptoms. Catharsis was also central to Freud’s concept ofpsychoanalysis, but he replaced hypnosis with free association.[16]

The term catharsis has also been adopted by modern psychotherapy, particularly Freudian psychoanalysis, to describe the act of expressing, or more accurately,experiencing the deep emotions often associated with events in the individual’s past which had originally been repressed or ignored, and had never been adequately addressed or experienced.

There has been much debate about the use of catharsis in the reduction of anger. Some scholars believe that “blowing off steam” may reduce physiological stress in the short term, but this reduction may act as a reward mechanism, reinforcing the behavior and promoting future outbursts.[17][18][19][20] However, other studies have suggested that using violent media may decrease hostility under periods of stress.[21] Legal scholars have linked “catharsis” to “closure”[22] (an individual’s desire for a firm answer to a question and an aversion toward ambiguity) and “satisfaction” which can be applied to affective strategies as diverse as retribution, on one hand, and forgiveness on the other.[23] Interestingly, there’s no “one size fits all” definition of “catharsis”,[24] and this doesn’t allow a clear definition of its use in therapeutic terms.

COUNTERANALYSIS
counteranalysis.org