Forensic Science and its branches – AL MICRO LAW

Forensic Science is a branch of science that is a combination of scientific investigations and law. It is formed from two Latin words- “forensis” and “science” which help in solving a crime scene and analyzing the evidence. This is a core branch of science involving a lot of precision of science and law. Using scientific methods in solving cases has been practiced since ancient times the trial was held publicly as it used to carry a strong judicial connotation. The advancement of science and technology has led the forensic field to foster. 

The things forensic science experts perform are the examination of the body also known as an autopsy, document identification, evidence examination, a search of the crime scene, collecting fingerprints, and analyzing a small sample of blood, saliva, or any other fluids for determination and identification processes. In jurisprudence, forensics involves the application of knowledge and technology from several scientific fields. Biology, pharmacy, chemistry, medicine, and so on are the examples as each of them applies in today’s more complex legal proceedings in which experts from these fields are hard to prove offenses. Forensic science is the application of medical and paramedical expertise to assist the administration of justice in solving legal matters or in the court of law. The forensic findings can be used in a court of law as a piece of evidence and thus can be useful in solving a legal matter or dispute.

Forensic Science has various branches like Forensic biology, forensic physics, computational forensic, digital forensics, forensic accounting, forensic anthropology, forensic archaeology, forensic astronomy, forensic ballistic, forensic botany, forensic chemistry, forensic dactyloscopy, forensic document examination, forensic DNA analysis, forensic entomology, forensic geology, forensic linguistics, forensic meteorology, forensic odontology, forensic pathology, forensic podiatry, forensic toxicology, forensic psychology, forensic economics, criminology and wildlife forensics. 

  • Forensic biology – Forensic Biology is the use of biological scientific principles and processes, generally in a legal setting. Forensic biologists examine plants cellular and tissue samples, as well as physiological fluids, in the course of a legal inquiry.
  • Forensic physics – Forensic physics is the use of physics for civil or criminal law objectives. Forensic physics has typically entailed the determination of density (soil and glass investigation), the refractive index of materials, and birefringence for fibre analysis. Ballistics is a sub-discipline of forensic physics.
  • Computational forensic – Computational science is being used to investigate and solve problems in several sectors of forensic research.
  • Digital forensics – It specialises in retrieving data from electronic and digital media.
  • Forensic accounting – Accounting for forensic purposes investigates and evaluates facts pertaining to accounting.
  • Forensic anthropology – Forensic anthropology is the use of anthropology and osteology to establish information about a human body in an advanced stage of decomposition.
  • Forensic archaeology – Archaeology for forensic purposes is the branch in which archaeological approaches are used
  • Forensic astronomy – Astronomy for forensic purposes is the use of celestial constellations to address legal concerns is quite uncommon. It is most commonly utilised to solve historical issues.
  • Forensic ballistic – Forensic Ballistics is the examination of any evidence pertaining to weapons (bullets, bullet marks, shell casings, gunpowder residue etc.)
  • Forensic botany – Plant leaves, seeds, pollen, and other plant life found on the crime scene, victim, or accused can give solid proof of the accused’s presence.
  • Forensic chemistry – Forensic chemistry focuses on the investigation of illegal narcotics, gunshot residue, and other chemical compounds.
  • Forensic dactyloscopy – Dactyloscopy for forensic purposes relates to the collection, preservation, and analysis of fingerprint evidence.
  • Forensic document examination – Examining forensic documents investigates, researches, and determines the facts of documents under dispute in court.
  • Forensic DNA analysis – This branch of forensic science focuses on the collecting and analysis of DNA evidence for use in court.
  • Forensic entomology – It investigates insects discovered at the scene of a crime or on the body of a victim, and it is especially useful in pinpointing the time and place of the victim’s death.
  • Forensic geology – Geology for forensic purposes entails the use of geological variables such as soil and minerals to obtain evidence for a crime.
  • Forensic linguistics – It is the study of the language used in judicial procedures. Emergency calls, voice identification, ransom demands, suicide notes, and so on are all examples.
  • Forensic meteorology –  It includes using meteorological variables to ascertain details about a crime. It is most frequently applied in instances involving insurance companies and homicides.
  • Forensic odontology –  It refers to the investigation of dental evidence.
  • Forensic pathology – This branch of forensic science is concerned with the examination of a body and identifying factors such as the cause of death.
  • Forensic podiatry – Forensic podiatry refers to the investigation of footprint evidence.
  • Forensic toxicology – A forensic toxicologist investigates toxic compounds found on or in a body, such as narcotics, e-liquid, and poisons.
  • Forensic Psychology – Forensic Psychology and Forensic Psychiatry are two branches of forensic medicine. These are concerned with the legal implications of human activity.
  • Forensic economics – This is the investigation and analysis of economic damage evidence, which includes present-day estimations of lost earnings and benefits, the lost value of a firm, lost business profits, lost value of home services, replacement labour expenses, and future medical care expenditures. 
  • Criminology – In criminal investigations, this involves the use of several disciplines to answer issues about the study and comparison of biological evidence, trace evidence, impression evidence (such as fingerprints, shoeprints, and tyre tracks), restricted drugs, and guns.
  • Wildlife forensics – This involves the investigation of crime situations involving animals, such as endangered species or animals that have been unlawfully killed or poached.

When it comes to life and death situations, objective proof is critical. In the past, significant evidence in criminal prosecutions might have come from witnesses or other subjective sources, but forensic science now provides objective evidence. That is, forensic evidence, which is based on the scientific approach, is considered more dependable than even eyewitness testimony. In a legal system that holds that the accused is innocent until proven guilty, forensic scientists’ evidence is now routinely used by both the defence and the prosecution in many court cases. While Forensic Toxicologists, for example, may work most closely with law enforcement or the courts after a crime has been committed, Forensic Psychologists (also known as Profilers) might step in even before a suspect has been identified to assist prevent future crimes.

Forensic Science is an emerging branch of science that is a combination of scientific investigations and law. It is formed from two Latin words- “forensis” and “science” which help in solving a crime scene and analyzing the evidence. This is a core branch of science involving a lot of precision of science and law. Using […]

A brief about Forensic Science and its branches — AL MICRO LAW

Forensic Ballistics – Case Study via Forensic’s blog

Case 1 (Russ Columbo Killed) The case related to Fatal injuries & Ricocheting: A notable example of the power of a ricochet was given by the fatal accident which occurred in the fall of 1933 when an actor Russ Columbo was accidentally killed by the explosion of the charge in an old muzzle-loading pistol which […]

Forensic Ballistics – Case Study — Forensic’s blog

What is Forensic Psychiatry?

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic science has gained incredible attention through popular crime investigation shows. People love to watch as the clues, and tell-tale signs of guilt unfold, playing along by making their guesses about what the evidence means. One of the most interesting of the forensic sciences is forensic psychiatry.

Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists were developed by Division 41 of the American Psychological Association, but are not an “official statement” of this organization. The guidelines offer a model of practices to which psychological experts should aspire, and are intended to amplify standards expressed in the American Psychological Association’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists. The Specialty Guidelines define as forensic psychologists those licenced psychologists who regularly function as experts in legal proceedings, who work in correctional and/or forensic mental health facilities, or who serve in agencies that adjudicate judicial or legal matters.

Common procedures/interventions

Court work

Forensic psychiatrists regularly provide expert witness evidence to courts at all levels. Psychiatrists in other specialties may also have sufficient training to do this, but, more commonly forensic psychiatrists are called to the higher courts – including crown courts or the Court of Appeal in more serious criminal cases such as homicide, other serious violence and sex offending. They may also be asked for expertise in the family court or on other civil matters, such as compensation after major trauma or disaster. Areas of expertise required include:

  • defendant’s fitness to plead and fitness to stand trial
  • capacity to form intent
  • advice to the courts on the available psychiatric defences
  • appropriateness and circumstances required for an individual’s admission to hospital for assessment
  • appropriateness of a mental health disposal at the time of sentencing
  • nature of a particular mental disorder and link to future risks
  • prognosis and availability of “appropriate treatment”
  • level of security required to treat a patient and manage risk

Consultation work

When advising colleagues in the care of patients deemed to be a risk to others, forensic psychiatrists will need to be competent to provide a detailed assessment including advice on:

  • risk of harm to others, including use of structured risk assessment/professional judgement tools
  • risk management
  • expertise on pharmacological and psychological treatment approaches to violent behaviours associated with mental disorders
  • psychodynamic formulation of the case, including psychotherapeutic strategy
  • therapeutic use of security

Community forensic work provides opportunities to assess and to work with mentally disordered offenders in facilities run by HM Prison and Probation Service and/or third sector organisations. In addition, although all psychiatrists should have a basic understanding of the system of Multi-Agency Protection Panels, in practice forensic psychiatrists must be very experienced in such work. Ethical issues, such as information sharing, differ under such working arrangements from usual clinical practice. Skills needed include knowledge of when and what otherwise confidential information must be shared with others in these circumstances, clarity of understanding of role in the arrangements and appropriate confidence in requiring information from other agencies when necessary for good and safe care. 

Forensic psychiatrists must participate in regular audit within and outside the specialty, thus helping to improve the quality of the service offered to patients.

They must understand clinical governance procedures, attend meetings and investigate complaints and serious incidents alongside colleagues in the multi-disciplinary team. 

Teaching and training is also an important part of the work. This includes weekly supervision of specialist higher trainees in forensic psychiatry, but also more junior trainees in any specialty. With recruitment and retention in mind, it is important to engage with undergraduate medical trainees too. Given the multi-professional nature of the work, a contribution to the teaching and training of people from other relevant disciplines is also expected. 

Super-specialties

People with needs relevant to the whole psychiatric spectrum may offend or become dangerous to others. In some areas this is so common that joint training has been set up to allow those who complete the training to be able to claim expertise in both (or more) areas. There is a growing need for old-age forensic psychiatry, and most offender patients have problems with substance misuse, but the three recognised combinations to date are:

  • adolescent forensic psychiatry
  • forensic learning disability psychiatry 
  • forensic psychotherapy

Visit- https://psychiatriccongress.europeannualconferences.com/

Register here- https://psychiatriccongress.europeannualconferences.com/registration.php

Forensic psychiatry is a subspecialty of psychiatry, in which scientific and clinical expertise is applied to legal issues in legal contexts embracing civil, criminal, correctional, or legislative matters. Forensic science has gained incredible attention through popular crime investigation shows. People love to watch as the clues, and tell-tale signs of guilt unfold, playing along by making […]

Forensic Psychiatry — European Conferences

Book Review ~ Bodies of Evidence via BookZone

Bodies of Evidence: How Forensic Science Solves Crime

by Brian Innes & Lucy Doncaster


Synopsis: Bodies of Evidence is packed with intriguing case histories involving an astonishing variety of forensic evidence.

Criminal investigators have learned how to interpret vital testimony that is written in the language of fingerprints and flakes of skin, gradients of teeth and bone, splashes of blood, flecks of paint, traces of chemicals, a splinter of glass, or a uniquely striated bullet. Bodies of Evidence includes various cases from around the world, including O.J. Simpson, Ted Bundy, John Wayne Gacy, “The Mad Bomber”George Metesky, Tommie Lee Andrews, “The Night Stalker” Richard Ramirez, Jack Unterweger, Lee Harvey Oswald, “The Boston Strangler” Albert DeSalvo, Jeffrey MacDonald, the Lockerbie bombing, “The Unabomber” Theodore Kaczynski, and many more. The book also chronicles and evaluates the role of those who have made the most significant contributions in the varied fields of toxicology, serology, fingerprinting, facial reconstruction, forensic ballistics, psychological profiling, and DNA fingerprinting. The text is illustrated throughout with 200 photographs, some of which have rarely been seen before.


My thoughts: I liked the different people this book talked about that I hadn’t read about before. Much of the forensics history and information I was fairly familiar with. The rest of it was interesting and informative. The stories about the killers were good, including the better known ones. Lots of phots included in this book, some a bit graphic. I received an advance review copy for free, and I am leaving this review voluntarily.



Publisher: Amber Books – 256 pages

Publication Date: Nov 16th, 2021

My rating: 4/5 STARS


About the author: Brian Innes trained as a scientist and worked as a biochemical researcher before turning to writing. He published a large number of articles and books on forensic science. He died in 2014.

Lucy Doncaster is the editor and author of numerous history and popular science books, with topics ranging from the greatest mysteries of the unexplained, Churchill’s army, and the history of the world to DNA, big data, and deep space.


Bodies of Evidence: How Forensic Science Solves Crime by Brian Innes & Lucy Doncaster Synopsis: Bodies of Evidence is packed with intriguing case histories involving an astonishing variety of forensic evidence. Criminal investigators have learned how to interpret vital testimony that is written in the language of fingerprints and flakes of skin, gradients of teeth and […]

Book Review ~ Bodies of Evidence — BookZone

Independant Auditor vs. Forensic Accountant via Dee Studler

There is no single definition of forensic accounting, but what everyone agrees on is that forensic accounting involves applying accounting concepts and techniques to legal issues. It is a specialty that requires the integration of investigative, accounting and auditing skills. According to Dee Studler, founder of SDC CPAs, a global investigation and forensic accounting firm, […]

Forensic Accounting — Dee Studler

Forensics: The Research Tools Every Writer Needs via Danielle Adams

A staple location in any mystery is the crime scene. You know, the one where cops and forensic scientists take photos and collect evidence. It’s that evidence that helps our detective crack the case. In other words, forensics are integral to any mystery or crime novel.

The only problem is that the task of collecting and analyzing evidence is usually grossly misrepresented by Hollywood. It is also detailed work, which makes getting it right in your novel paramount.

To make things more interesting is there are numerous sub-fields to the discipline, so you’ll need to craft different characters for each role. Thankfully, there are writers out there that have blazed a trail for you and amassed numerous resources for us to use.

What is Forensics?

Before we go any further into the resources and how to use forensics in our writing, let’s define what this scientific discipline is:

Forensics: The application of the methods of the natural and physical sciences to matters of criminal and civil law. 

According to Britannica, forensic science is involved in criminal investigation and prosecution and civil wrong cases, such as willful pollution or industrial injuries.

The Different Types

And if you think about it, there are many different types of sciences used in forensics. For instance, here are 16 types of forensic science:

  • Trace Evidence Analysis
  • Toxicology
  • Podiatry
  • Odontology
  • Linguistics
  • Geology
  • Entomology
  • Engineering
  • DNA Analysis
  • Botany
  • Archaeology
  • Anthropology
  • Digital Forensics
  • Ballistics

And that’s not all of them. There are more, and what you use in your story will depend on the type of crime your character is investigating.

It makes this a bit daunting when you’re thinking about the research you’ll have to do into each branch. There are ways around this, but you should know the basics about evidence collection, who collects it, and how it’s analyzed.

Forensics Research Resources

When writing our detective story or police procedural, our focus is on the investigator of the crime. We aren’t looking closely at our secondary characters, which means we may not be doing our research.

And if we aren’t doing proper research, we might be assigning our detective duties outside of their role. Before we go into anything else, I want you to look at this infographic from Rasmussen College on who is present on a crime scene.

Who's who on a crime scene infographic. You need to know which forensics experts are present at the beginning.

Aside from the police officers on-site, you also have a forensic photographer taking pictures of the evidence. Your medical examiner and forensic pathologist are there to figure out how and when the victim died and to gather any evidence to help confirm these details later. And finally, you have a forensic science technician that collects all the evidence from the crime scene and classifies it, so it goes to the right people back at the lab.

Just because several people are on the crime scene, it doesn’t mean the crime scene is a free-for-all. There is a strict hierarchy of who is allowed on the crime scene at a given time.

Also, make sure that you’re up on the latest technology to lift fingerprints, collect DNA, etc. Here’s an infographic from eLocal Lawyers to get you started:

Get to Know Your Forensics Field

Each branch of forensics deals with a particular part of an investigation. For example, ballistics deals with guns, odontology deals with dental work, etc. If you are using a specific type of evidence, like dental work, look into the following things:

  • What evidence is looked at by that branch?
  • How that evidence is collected?
  • How long it takes to analyze the evidence?
  • Does the evidence support the investigation and prosecution of the crime? And in what ways?
  • What a negative result looks like and what successful results look like?
  • What’s real or made-up by Hollywood?

Here’s an infographic that explains the myths surrounding DNA evidence by Criminologia:

Some other authors have also created in-depth articles about specific forensic fields, like this one from the Creative Penn.

Other Resources

Besides knowing who does what, you need to look into several other avenues to make your fiction as realistic as possible. Here’s how you can do that:

Read some books.

The best way to find some things to look into is by reading within your genre. And if you want a thoroughly entertaining read from a forensic scientist, then you can’t go wrong with Kathy Reichs, the author behind the Bones TV show.

I’ve linked you to her about page. It tells you about all of her real-life experience in the field, so she knows what she’s talking about. The about page also links to numerous institutions that contain valuable, credible research information that you can use in your story.

You can also turn to nonfiction and read the following books and articles for writers:

You can also check out textbooks for forensics students, biographies, true crime stories, etc.

Check the Internet or Your Local Library

Libraries, especially your local university or college libraries, are fantastic resources for finding information. These libraries house academic texts and often have specialized collections and rare materials.

The college library is also the place to research articles from professional, scientific, and academic journals. These journals are a great way to find information about the latest news, breakthroughs, theories, and research within the various forensic specialties.

Additionally, your friendly search engine is an excellent way for you to start amassing your library of links on forensic science sites. You want to look for websites affiliated with educational institutions, media outlets that investigate and cover forensic issues, professional forensics organizations, law enforcement agencies, and experienced forensic investigators.

Talk to the Experts

The best place for you to find the information you need is to go straight to the source: the forensic experts. That means you’ll need to leverage your networking skills to find someone. You can also contact professors from your local college or university.

And if you don’t want to talk to someone, you can flip through some forensic science magazines to read interviews and articles on the subject. Or to get contact information so you can speak to them. (It’s still your best bet to get the information you need.)

Forensic specialists are busy people, so it may be worth your time to learn how to conduct an interview (AKA, ask pointed questions to get what you need). Here are some resources for helping you hone your interviewing skills:

Remember to thank your expert for their time and send a follow up “Thank you” note.

Legal Ramifications

Your story might not cover the case’s prosecution, but it’s good to know how forensic evidence is used in court and what types of evidence are seen as “more concrete” than others.

What can affect your story is the collection of evidence from a suspect’s home or person. You may want to look into the legal documents or statements that police and investigators need before they begin taking objects into evidence.

How to Write a Forensics Novel

Now that we have the research portion of our writing process out of the way, we need to focus on putting it into action. So without further adieu, here is what you need to think about when adding forensics to your story:

Setting up your crime scene.

You need to give this some thought on two fronts. First, you need to provide clues that will help your protagonist solve the crime. You also need to think about what your antagonist will do to cover their tracks.

Here’s an infographic on some ways your murderer may cover his tracks:

10 Ways to Cover Up a Murder Infographic with forensics

Why does this matter?

Because whatever your criminal does will leave behind certain types of evidence – your red herrings. These are a must-have in mystery or thriller because they help create suspense and keep your readers guessing until the end.

Put it in writing.

Earlier in this post, I told you there was a way around creating a new character for every forensic expert your protagonist interacts with. And the best way you can do that is by giving your protagonist reports to read.

And this is where you can have some fun. You can have your protagonist talk to their partner about the results, or you can format your page to look like a report. (It could look a little like this.)

Focus on one aspect of forensics.

I’m not saying that you need to focus on one type of forensics only, still use common evidence types, like fingerprinting, DNA, etc. but focus on an aspect you want to explore. Once you do that, exploit it for all the drama you can get out of it.

A common thing to focus on in true crime accounts or other crime stories is the killer or criminal’s psyche. People find this fascinating, and you can play into that to make your story more dramatic and suspenseful. Whatever you choose, ensure it is a central theme or piece of evidence for your novel.

Don’t commit to a specific time of death.

As author C.S. Lakin puts it:

Many mortis factors are considered when estimating time of death. Temperature is the biggie, followed by body mass.

A dead body will naturally adjust temperature (algor) to achieve equilibrium with its surroundings and will display time-telling factors, such as muscle stiffening (rigor), blood settling (livor), color (palor), and tissue breakdown (decomp). The presence of toxins also effects body changes. Cocaine amplifies the mortis process, while carbon monoxide retards it. Be careful in getting your forensic guru to commit on specific time.

The answer is in forensics.

Or the smallest of details. Author Sue Coletta highlighted this beautifully in her post about writing realistic crime scenes. She provides her readers with two cases and alters the crime scene in a small way.

When the officers find a small changed detail, they can solve the crime and arrest the appropriate person. That’s why many TV shows and novels have the detective go through all the evidence again to find that one small thing they missed.

And you can do this for your novel as well. If you want to, that is. You can always try to come up with a new way to bring the perpetrator to justice.


Forensics is an essential part of any investigation. It helps our detective find out who the killer is and bring them to justice.

They are also nasty little details that can make or break your reader’s suspension of belief if they’re not well-researched. Hopefully, I’ve made your research easier by providing you with a list of resources for you to use.

And don’t forget to pay attention to how your criminal will cover their tracks. It could be a small detail that’s their undoing.

Why are we fascinated with forensics and crime? Any Bones fans out there? Did I miss anything, or do you have any more tips? Please let me know in the comments below!

Stay safe, everyone.

Until next time.

Cheers,

Danielle

A staple location in any mystery is the crime scene. You know, the one where cops and forensic scientists take photos and collect evidence. It’s that evidence that helps our detective crack the case. In other words, forensics are integral to any mystery or crime novel. The only problem is that the task of collecting and analyzing […]

Forensics: The Research Tools Every Writer Needs — Danielle Adams

Forensic Expert via The Forensic Science Public Desk, India

Who is an Expert?

I am an expert in doing sketches. How? I am passionate about sketching and drawing since my childhood and still, I practice it. I take a very short time to do any kind of sketch within few minutes compared to the capability of any other common human. Hence, It can be said as he has expertise in the art of sketching and he has knowledge on sketching where he can form an opinion or comment on other work whether it is authentic, truly hard work, commendable work or possibilities and what were the possible ingredients used to make a certain sketch.

So that was an example which gives us a better understanding of who is an expert.

A person who has special knowledge and skill in a particular branch of learning and thus qualified to give his opinion, whereas, an ordinary person is not competent to do so.

Thus, Doctors, artists, engineers, surveyors, engravers, mechanics, artisans, and the diverse classes of specifically skilled workmen would all be experts within the meaning of the expert, of course, each in his walk of life.

How can you be one? 

Crimes are associated with the number of evidence like blood, bullet or a dead body. Identification or classifying any of this would easy due to definite science which is available as the experience of individuals working with a field like serologists, Ballistic experts or Doctors. This particular aspect can be learnt and it can apply to

Section 45 in The Indian Evidence Act, 1872

Opinions of experts.—When the Court has to form an opinion upon a point of foreign law or science or art.

What is foreign law or science or art? Means, Court is represented by personnel’s dealing with law and justice enforced for public welfare. I pursuit of justice there are certain aspects which are also involved like science. Representatives of court, that is judges or law Practitioners are not aware of these particular sciences like serology or physics or medicine nor they can complete the degree in few days nor they can be unethical by justifying anything on their own. They are knowledgeable personnel’s in enacting law and justice for public welfare but not to justify truth hidden within the scientific evidence like nature of injury on the body or striation marks on the bullet.

Hence, the Court needs to rely on expert opinion to understand the significant scientific evidence role of any kind of case dealt with in the court.

Examples

Doctor: As to ascertain the cause of death or time since death

Chemical examiner: identification of a questioned substance by conducting chemical examination which approved by scientific statutory bodies.

Ballistics expert: identification of alleged firearm by comparing test-fired bullet and questioned bullet.

Court believes science-based literature, research held and scientific principles or laws developed during a search of the reality behind happenings of many unknown things to mankind.

Whom will you handover the evidence to?

Just imagine if you are having an Evidence which is a “Document with disputed signature, questioned age of ink in the signature and contents on the questioned document” Whom will you handover the evidence to?

One who has just completed Masters in Forensic Science – has experience practice with demo samples or simulated samples or experience while in internship or project under the supervision of an expert. The court cannot rely on you leaving behind qualified experts but you should be having the capability to convince the court in the science subject matter thus makes you an expert. Anybody one who can prove or involve in the scientific examination of the evidence on the grounds of being intellectual in scientific principles and law which are in current practice by many of the recognized scientists can be referred and can be used to prove the truth hidden with evidence. This can be regarded as the private practice of forensic consultancy.

According to IEA 45, an opinion formed by an expert is based on recognized principles regulating the scientific study. The opinion so formed by a person having the necessary special skill in the subject is, therefore, the opinion of an expert in that branch of the science. Such an opinion is the opinion of an expert in a branch of science which is admissible in evidence under Section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act. (or)

One who has 10 years of experience dealing with similar types of cases as an expert – Similar kind of cases here means, there is plenty of complications involved in dealing with crime evidence. Hence, Experience will be vast and much expertise in nature. Many of the times experts may fail to form an opinion and where by the court will justify such conflict by itself being expert by considering other circumstantial evidence and facts of the case. Under section 73 IEA.

Though Section 73 deals with Comparison of signature, writing or seal with others admitted or proved. It has also relevance with the explanation given for court expertise.

Patna High Court State (Through Cbi) vs S.J. Choudhary on 13 February, 1996

Are there any designated experts recognized by the court?

Yes, Forensic Science Laboratories personnel’s under section 293 says Reports of certain Government scientific experts. Subsection 4 applies to the Government scientific experts, namely:-

(a) any Chemical Examiner or Assistant Chemical Examiner to Government; of Forensic Science Laboratories or Govt. Chemical Examiners Laboratory.

(b) the Chief Inspector of- Explosives; current position is Joint Chief Controller of Explosives (HOD) of Petroleum & Explosives Safety Organization (PESO).

(c) the Director of the Finger Print Bureau; both state level and central level.

(d) the Director, Haffkeine Institute, Bombay; as a bacteriology research Centre called the “Plague Research Laboratory”. It now offers various basic and applied biomedical science services.

(e) Director, Deputy Director or Assistant Director] of a Central Forensic Science Laboratory or a State Forensic Science Laboratory;

(f) the Serologist to the Government. Head of Institute of Serology that is Serologist & Chemical examiner or Assistant serologists.

So these people are regarded as experts in the court officially or they can also appoint assistants working with case actually under subsection 3 of Cr.P.C 293

 

This article will help to understand forensic expertise, the role of an expert in criminal justice system by providing suitable examples accordingly Indian Evidence Act Sections 45 & 73 and also gives a glance on government scientific experts under section 293 of Criminal Procedure Code.

via Forensic Expert — Forensic Science Public Desk, India

RELATIVE POVERTY not Poverty causes crime.

Psychology Professor Jordan Peterson explains the clear documented science why it’s relative poverty and not poverty itself that causes crime, AKA the Gini Coefficient He goes on further explaining the role of the male dominance hierarchy in context of relative poverty and crime.

Dr. Peterson’s new book is available for pre-order:
12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos: http://amzn.to/2yvJf9L
If you want to support Dr. Peterson, here is his Patreon:
https://www.patreon.com/jordanbpeterson
Check out Jordan Peterson’s Self Authoring Program, a powerful tool to sort yourself out:
http://bit.ly/selfAuth (Official affiliate link for Bite-sized Philosophy)

 

Do Inmates Need Educational Protocols?

ISO 13485
ISO 13485 Medical devices — Quality management systems — Requirements for regulatory purposes is an International Organization for Standardization standard published for the first time in 1996; it represents the requirements for a comprehensive quality management system for the design and manufacture of medical devices.

This standard supersedes earlier documents such as EN 46001 and EN 46002, the previously published ISO 13485, and ISO 13488.

The essentials of validation planning, protocol writing, and change management will be explained.

via ESSENTIALS OF VALIDATION – Do You Really Need It? — Compliance4all