The cold case murder of a 26-year-old Pennsylvania mother in 1988 has been finally solved thanks to DNA evidence found on a chilling letter. — Read on http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/dna-letter-helps-solve-34-year-old-cold-case-murder-pa-mom-rcna44185Forensics: DNA from letter helps solve 34-year-old cold case murder of Pa. mom — FORENSICS and LAW in FOCUS @ CSIDDS | News and Trends
“The FBI could be the most dangerous agency in the country if not scrutinized carefully.”
FBI director Louis Freeh
Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab
August 29 2022 — Last week, FBI Las Vegas tweeted a picture of a special agent fingerprinting child actress Margaret O’Brien during her visit to the FBI in January 1946. This tweet brought back quite some memories… Follow us on Twitter: @Intel_Today
RELATED POST: Forensic science — FBI Bullet-Lead Technique Dead Wrong
RELATED POST: FBI Experts : Monkey Science in Monkey Courts?
The fingerprints of Margaret O’Brien brought the total number on file to 100,000,000. Since 1924, the FBI has been the single U.S. repository for fingerprints. Computers were first installed to search these files in 1980.
Since 1999, the FBI has stored and accessed its fingerprint database via the digital IAFIS (Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System), which currently holds the fingerprints and criminal records of over 51 million criminal record subjects and over 1.5 million civil (non-criminal) fingerprint records. US Visit currently holds a repository of the fingerprints of over 50 million non-US citizens. [Vintage photographs show the massive FBI’s fingerprint files, 1944]
Perhaps, you believe that ‘fingerprint evidence’ is rock solid evidence. Allow me to quote a very important analysis [Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab] :
Occasionally, proficiency testing in one specialist area of forensic science exposes widespread incompetence. In 1995, Collaborative Testing Services tested 156 U.S. fingerprint examiners — the cornerstone of forensic science — in a proficiency test sponsored by their professional body, the International Association for Identification. Only 44 percent (68) of those tested identified all seven latent fingerprints correctly. Some 56 percent (88) got at least one wrong, 4 percent (6) of these failing to identify any. In all, incorrect identifications made up 22 percent of the total attempted.
In other words, in more than one in five instances “damning evidence would have been presented against the wrong person,” noted David Grieve, editor of the fingerprinters’ magazine, the Journal of Forensic Identification. Worse still, examiners knew they were being tested and were thus presumably more careful and freer from law enforcement pressures. Calling for immediate action, Grieve concluded: “If one in five latent fingerprint examiners truly possesses knowledge, skill or ability at a level below an acceptable and understood baseline, then the entire profession is in jeopardy.” The same must be true of every suspect in the country, the vast majority of whom never get a fingerprint expert onto their defense team or any chance of a reexamination. Many crime laboratories routinely destroy fingerprint evidence.
It is clear that forensic science is massively error-ridden, while the flaws in the sole laboratory accreditation program designed to improve performance are obvious. ASCLD/LAB has no powers to regulate or inspect a crime lab or to stop a lab that has failed inspection from doing examinations in criminal justice cases.
Many U.S. crime labs have never even risked inspection and the possibility of failing, most notable among them the one that bills itself the premier forensic science laboratory in the world — the FBI lab in Washington.
Sadly, widespread incompetence is just one side of the problem. There is worse, much worse…
“Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity, but don’t rule out malice.”
Did you know? FBI agents intervened in the Shirley McKie case — a former detective wrongly accused of leaving her fingerprint at a murder scene — to urge a cover-up amid fears it could scupper the trial of the Lockerbie bombers.
David Grieve, the senior fingerprint expert at Illinois State Police who helped clear Ms McKie in 1999, said FBI agents had asked him to keep silent before the Lockerbie trial began in the Hague in February 2000.
Mr Grieve said : “I was asked not to mention anything about the case and not to publicise it because we had to think about the higher goal, which was Lockerbie.”
Meanwhile, Allan Bayle, a fingerprint expert formerly of the Metropolitan Police, has said it was his “firm belief” the SCRO’s evidence was “far more likely to be fabrication rather than gross incompetence”.
And now, allow me go back to the Lockerbie Case. Let us discuss the so-called evidence of SEMTEX!
To be continued.
Forensic Science: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab
Lockerbie FBI team urged a cover-up on McKie — The Herald, Feb. 2006
FBI Forensic Science : Incompetence or Malice?
“The FBI could be the most dangerous agency in the country if not scrutinized carefully.” FBI director Louis Freeh Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab August 29 2022 — Last week, FBI Las Vegas tweeted a picture of a special agent fingerprinting child actress Margaret O’Brien during her visit to […]FBI Forensic Science : Incompetence or Malice? — Intel Today
IT IS A MISTAKE TO THEORIZE BEFORE YOU HAVE ALL EVIDENCE. IT BIASES THE JUDGMENT – Sherlock HolmesFORENSICS IN THE COURTROOM — Manisha Nandan
[ CRIME NEVER DIES – PART 3 ]
UDGMENT – Sherlock Holmes
When someone is charged with a crime, the prosecution and defence typically call in witnesses to testify about the guilt or innocence of the person who has been accused. One of the most important players in all this testimony often isn’t a person at all: it’s the forensic evidence.
And these evidences are obtained by scientific methods such as ballistics, blood test, and DNA test and further used in court proceeding . Forensic evidence often helps to establish the guilt or innocence of possible suspects.
So its Analysis is very important as they are used in the investigation and prosecution of civil as well as criminal matters. Moreover Forensic evidence can be used to link crimes that are thought to be related to one another. For example, DNA evidence can link one offender to several different crimes or crime scenes and this linking of crimes helps the police authorities to narrow the range of possible suspects and to establish patterns of for crimes to identify and prosecute suspect.
CASES REQUIRING FORENSIC EVIDENCE
Forensic evidence is useful in helping solve the most violent and brutal of cases, as well as completely nonviolent cases related to crimes such as fraud and hacking.
If a decomposing body is found in the woods somewhere, forensic scientists can use DNA, dental records, and other evidence to identify the person, determine the cause of death, and sometimes determine if the body contains material from another person who may have been present at the time of death.
Investigators often look for forensic evidence in cases where sexual assault is suspected. In some cases, DNA evidence can prove or disprove allegations of rape or child molestation.
Forensics are also useful in drug cases. Scientists can test unidentified substances that were found on an individual to confirm whether or not they are cocaine, heroin, marijuana, or other controlled substances. Investigators use forensic toxicology to determine whether a driver was impaired at the time they were involved in an accident.
The field of forensics isn’t only limited to evidence obtained from people’s bodies. Ballistics (otherwise known as weapons testing) can tell investigators a lot about cases where gunfire was involved. Did a bullet come from a particular gun? Where was the shooter standing? How many shots did they fire? Ballistics can help answer all of these questions. Another area of forensic evidence lies within the circuits of our phones and computers. Those who commit cyber crimes leave behind traces of their activities in databases and documents scattered throughout the digital world. Forensic computer specialists know how to sort through the information to discover the truth.
However ,The question of admissibility of evidence is whether the evidence is relevant to a fact in issue in the case. Admissibility is always decided by the judge and all relevant evidence is potentially admissible, subject to common law and statutory rules on exclusion. Relevant evidence is evidence of facts in issue and evidence of sufficient relevance to prove or disprove a fact in issue.
As per Section 45 of Indian evidence Act 1872- When the Court has to form and opinion upon a point of foreign law or of science or art, or as to identity of handwriting or finger impressions, the opinions upon that point of persons specially skilled in such foreign law, science or art, or in questions as to identity of handwriting or finger impressions are relevant facts. Such persons are called experts. Further as per Section 46 of Indian evidence Act 1872- it is stated that facts, not otherwise relevant, are relevant if they support or are inconsistent with the opinions of experts, when such opinions are relevant. Though there is no specific DNA legislation enacted in India, Sec.53 and Sec. 54 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 provides for DNA tests impliedly and they are extensively used in determining complex criminal problems.
Sec. 53 deals with examination of the accused by medical practitioner at the request of police officer if there are reasonable grounds to believe that an examination of his person will afford evidence as to the commission of the offence. Sec. 54 of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973 further provides for the examination of the arrested person by the registered medical practitioner at the request of the arrested person.
The law commission of India in its 37th report stated that to facilitate effective investigation, provision has been made authorizing an examination of arrested person by a medical practitioner, if from the nature of the alleged offence or the circumstances under which it is alleged to have been committed, there are reasonable grounds for believing that an examination of the person will afford evidence. Sec. 27(1) of Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 says when a investigating officer request the court of CJM or the court of CMM in writing for obtaining sample of hand writing, finger prints, foot prints, photographs, blood, saliva, semen, hair, voice of any accused person, reasonable suspect to be involved in the commission of an offence under this act. It shall be lawful for the court of CJM or the court of CMM to direct that such samples shall be given by the accused person to the police officer either through a medical practitioner or otherwise as the case may be.
Section 65(B) of Indian Evidence Act says that electronic records needs to be certified by a person occupying a responsible official position for being admissible as evidence in any court proceedings.
So as the capabilities of forensic science have expanded and evolved over the years, facing a number of significant challenges.
Then also a main weakness is in its susceptibility to cognitive bias. Today, despite remaining a powerful element within the justice system, and playing a key role in establishing and reconstructing events, forensic science much like any scientific domain, faces weaknesses and limitations.
These issues can arise throughout an investigation; from when the forensic evidence is first collected at the scene of the crime, until the evidence is presented at court.
So there is utmost need of forensic science because of reasons like –
The need for the application of science in criminal investigation has arisen from the following factors:
1. Social Changes:
The society is undergoing drastic social changes at a very rapid pace. India has changed from a colonial subject race to a democratic republic. Sizeable industrial complex has sprung up. The transport facilities have been revolutionized. There is a growing shift from a rural society to an urban one. These changes have made the old techniques of criminal investigation obsolete. In the British days the police was so much feared that once it had laid its hands upon an individual, he would ‘confess’ to any crime, he may not have even known. The fear is vanishing now. The use of ‘third degree’ techniques used in those days does not find favour with the new generation of police officers and judges.
2. Hiding facilities:
The quick means of transport and high density of population in cities have facilitated the commission of crimes. The criminal can hide himself in a corner of a city or move away to thousands of miles in a few hours. He, thus often escapes apprehension and prosecution.
3. Technical knowledge:
The technical knowledge of an average man has increased tremendously in recent years. The crime techniques are getting refined. The investigating officer, therefore, needs modern methods to combat the modern criminal.
4. Wide field: The field of activities of the criminal is widening at a terrific rate. Formely, the criminals were usually local, now we find that national or international criminal is a common phenomenon. Smuggling,drug trafficking ,financial frauds and forgeries offer fertile and ever expanding fields.
5. Better Evidence: The physical evidence evaluated by an expert is objective. If a fingerprint is found at the scene of crime, it can belong to only one person. If this person happens to be be the suspect, he must account for its presence at the scene. Likewise, if a bullet is recovered from a dead body, it can be attributed to only one firearm. If this firearm happens to be that of the accused , he must account account for its involvement in the crime. Such evidence is always verifiable.
In reality, those rare few cases with good forensic evidence are the ones that make it to court.—Pat Brown
[ CRIME NEVER DIES – PART 3 ] IT IS A CAPITAL MISTAKE TO THEORIZE BEFORE YOU HAVE ALL EVIDENCE. IT BIASES THE JUDGMENT – Sherlock Holmes When someone is charged with a crime, the prosecution and defence typically call in witnesses to testify about the guilt or innocence of the person who has been […]FORENSICS IN THE COURTROOM — Manisha Nandan
With the demise of the internationally renowned public sector UK Forensic Science Service in 2012 came the promulgation and growth of a new competitive marketplace.
Private sector companies working in a hastily drawn up framework for forensic science provision were invited into rounds of competitive tendering that were driven by the police service.
These were based on the notion that the Forensic Science Service had been inefficient, delivering forensic science analysis in an expensive and untimely manner.
However, high-quality forensic science provision was always costly and the British police service wanted to operate in a new culture of cost reduction and value for money. They wanted full control of their spending and that is understandable.
But with the rise of competitive tendering the provision of forensic science was commoditized. Specific work and tests in each forensic discipline were itemized and bid for by the companies.
The police forces guaranteed specific volumes of testing to the companies in order to get the best prices and the police began to dictate to the companies what tests they required against the ‘pricelist’ when potential forensic evidence had been collected from crime scenes.
The police service also determined to undertake certain basic scientific tasks themselves. By bringing these in house they could further save money and reduce the burden on their budgets.
This new and cheaper approach has been in place for nine years and has been subjected to comment by critics and supporters alike. In 2018 one major player in the new UK forensic market, Key Forensic Services Ltd, collapsed. They had won a significant share of the available forensic science work, but couldn’t sustain the service.
Many working in forensic science warned that the quality of expert analysis and interpretation would be lost as scientists would no longer be able to refer their findings to colleagues across overlapping disciplines in order to provide a holistic approach to obtaining the best evidence from the forensic samples presented.
This would inevitably lead to the loss of the opportunities for contextualization of the evidential findings for use in the justice process.
In addition the fragmentation of the industry has seen many expert scientists set up their own niche services and struggle to get regular work. Some left the industry altogether.
There has never been a properly constituted academic analysis of what these changes have meant to UK forensic science provision and what the impact has been.
In a comprehensive and thorough six-year research programme, Dr Karen Richmond from the University of Copenhagen undertook a long and objective period of fieldwork and analysis.
Interviews were conducted not only with forensic scientists, but also with allied institutional agents including senior professional members of the judiciary of England and Wales, Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary, the Office of the Forensic Science Regulator, the Crown Prosecution Service, the Royal Society, the UK Accreditation Service, the Metropolitan Police Service, and the Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences.
Her findings are both startling and important. They point to a thoroughly dysfunctional marketplace that has failed to harmonize the array of tests and reports in a way that should have led to the configuration of a homogenous service from each provider to all police forces.
Instead, the exact opposite has occurred, with very different requirements being demanded of providers by each separate police force so that scientists are “reinventing the wheel” for each customer.
Furthermore the scientific strategy for the analysis and reporting of forensic samples is set by the police with little or no scientific training. They will perhaps have undertaken Crime Scene Investigation training, but that doesn’t allow for the best objective understanding of what might work or not work in each case.
This can result in loss of opportunities as the scientists are often not able to question the police requirements and cannot make their own investigative assessments of what the best science is to be applied.
There has been a market push and perhaps an over reliance on DNA testing as the “go to” science, to the detriment of other scientific processes such as the searching for, collection of, and analysis of fibers.
Indeed there are a host of critical findings that reflect negatively on the way the market has developed. Dr Richmond says in her report:
The data demonstrates not only how government agencies failed to adapt to the introduction of competitive tendering, but also how the market which developed in their wake began to influence, distort and reconfigure the very processes of forensic strategy-setting and analysis.
She goes on to say:
The results offer a compelling insight into the ways in which these agents have adapted to changing relations, shifting priorities, and the imposition of market logics within a sector unaccustomed to the obtrusions of economic efficiency and external regulation.
After nine years there are continuing tensions and frustrations. They are keenly felt by scientists and the companies providing forensic science services. These should not now be set aside as just another academic study.
Dr Richmond’s work has shown that in hindsight the implementation of the decision to restructure forensic science provision to the UK criminal justice system was flawed.
It perhaps should have never left the public sector in the first place, where in a government agency cost considerations would have remained secondary to the need to provide comprehensive criminal justice outcomes.
The US Perspective
In a recent column for The Crime Report “ Why We Need a Federal Forensic Science Agency,” I argued that forensic science provision in the U.S. cannot continue to support unvalidated and often junk science in its courts to the detriment of a fair and just criminal justice system. This remains the case.
However the UK seems to have also got things wrong. Not in the quality of work that is done by the forensic providers, as this is regulated and accredited to international standards; but in the way that the science has been dumbed down by the police.
The emphasis on treating science as a sequence of commoditized testing processes has led to the inability of scientists to properly engage their expertise in support of criminal justice in the way they did when forensic science was delivered as a public sector service.
If the U.S. is eventually to embrace a nationally mandated federal forensic science system in the future, then there are clear lessons to be learned from Dr Richmond’s research.
The application of forensic science to the justice process should be led by independent experts, working in a quality controlled environment, to provide the best evidence for the courts. A system that allows the police to control the work of scientists, without having recourse to the expert opinion of those scientists before the work is carried out, should not be the way to go.
Indeed the UK police approach to seeking quick results cheaply from forensic science may one day mean that the best opportunities to secure a conviction in a high-profile case may go out of the window, because other potential evidence is overlooked or not considered based on cost.
This couldn’t happen in the U.S., could it?
Gareth Bryon is a former Detective Chief Superintendent who worked as a senior officer in the South Wales Police and the British Transport Police, where he led major crime investigation and forensic science services for over 30 years.
Heaviest Organ of Human Body is Liver while Lightest Organ is Lung. The weight of organ is help to determine that whether it is normal or pathological.Weight of Organs in Human Body — Forensic’s blog
In Crime Scene Investigation, An investigator needs some tools which help in collecting evidences, preserving crime scene, etc. Here is the list of some essential items for investigating officers which they need to carry with them all time, especially on a crime-scene.Tools & Equipments for Crime Scene Investigation — Forensic’s blog
Global Forensic Science Test 1st Set via Advocatetanmoy Law Library
1- Dying declaration is to be preferably recorded by
(D) Jury Member
2. Murder cases are tried in the following courts
(A) Chief Judicial Magistrate’s Court
(B) 1st Class Metropolitan Magistrate’s Court
(C) Sessions Court
(D) High Court
3. Police inquest is conducted under section
(A) 174 CrPC
(B) 174 IPC
(C) 176 CrPC
(D) 176 IPC
4. Assertion (A): Blood stains on cloth should be collected after drying in shade under room heater.
Reason (R): It causes disintegration of blood stains.
(A) Both (A) and (R) are correct.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are incorrect.
(C) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
(D) (A) is incorrect, but (R) is correct.
5. Preservation of footprint on snow can be done by
(A) Plaster of Paris Cast
(B) Sulphur Casting
(D) Wax Casting
6. Light that has all its waves pulsating in unison is called
(C) Monochromatic light
(D) Polychromatic light
7. Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) is used in the following:
(A) Atomic Absorption Spectrometer
(B) Atomic Emission Spectrometer
(C) Infra Red Spectrometer
(D) X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer
8. Deviations from Beer’s Law fall into which categories?
(D) All of the above
9. One of the following is not the component of Kastle-Meyer Test
(B) Glacial Acetic Acid
(C) Zinc dust
(D) Potassium Hydroxide
10. Confirmation of menstrual blood stain is done by the following method:
(A) Isoenzyme marker
(B) Fibrin Degradation Product (FDP)
(C) Protein Marker
(D) Restriction enzymes
11. The complementary base pairs among four nucleotides (A, T, G, C) are as
(A) A= G and T = C
(B) A = C and G = T
(C) A = T and G = C
(D) All of the above
12. Seminal fluid is a gelatinous material produced in males by seminal vesicles, prostate and
(A) Adrenal gland
(B) Pituitary gland
(C) Cowper’s gland
(D) Thyroid gland
13. The level of toxicity of Datura plant on the basis of increasing level is
(A) Root, Seeds, Fruit, Leaf
(B) Leaf, Root, Fruit, Seeds
(C) Fruit, Root, Seeds, Leaf
(D) Seeds, Leaf, Root, Fruit
14. Sodium and Potassium hydroxides are strongly corrosive due towww.netugc.com
(A) Their solvent action on protein material
(B) Their saponifying action on the lipids
(C) Their ability to extract water from the tissues
(D) All of above
15. In case of carbon monoxide poisoning which preservative is recommended for the preservation of blood samples
(A) Sodium Chloride
(B) Sodium Fluoride
(C) Sodium Carbonate
(D) No preservative
16. Free sulphuric acid is rarely found in stomach contents in acid poisoning cases because
(A) It may be vomited out
(B) May be neutralised by alkalies given as antidotes
(C) May combine chemically with the tissue with which it comes in contact
(D) All the above
17. Arrange the following firearms in the proper chronological order:
(i) Flint lock
(ii) Wheel lock
(iii) Match lock
(iv) Percussion cap lock
(A) (ii) (iii) (iv) (i)
(B) (iii) (i) (ii) (iv)
(C) (iv) (ii) (i) (iii)
(D) (i) (iv) (iii) (ii)
18. The Indian Arms Act was enforced in
19. The bore of the 12 bore gun is
21. The diameter of SG pellet in 12 bore gun cartridge is
(A) 8.43 mm
(B) 7.77 mm
(C) 6.83 mm
(D) 5.16 mm
22. Faeces stains are identified from odour, presence of indigested matter, vegetable fibres and
(B) Dark brown crystals of choline iodide
(C) Rhombic crystals
(D) All of the above
23. Assertion (A): Hair has paramount importance to establish the link between suspect and victim and linking both with the scene of occurrence.
Reason (R): As per Locards principle of exchange.
(A) (A) is correct, but (R) is incorrect.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are incorrect.
(C) (R) is correct, but (A) is incorrect.
(D) Both (A) and (R) are correct.
24. The direction of a wound can be ascertained from which of the following injuries:
(A) Chop wound
(C) Incised wound
25. Lanugo hairs are
(B) Thin and soft
(D) Scale pattern is complex
26. The following method is used for determining the age of an ink by tracking the degradation of certain dyes.
(A) Thin layer chromatography (TLC)
(B) Gas chromatography (GC)
(C) Laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS)
(D) High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)
27. LSD is derived from which of the following plant?
(A) Cannabis sp.
(B) Papaver Somniferum
(C) Erthroxylum sp.
28. Linseed, Safflower and Cottonseed are used for
(A) Paint pigments
(B) Paint oils
(C) Paint solvents
(D) Paint binders
29. Assertion (A): As the rhodamine ‘B’ in ballpoint pen ink degrades, it loses the ethyl groups.
Reason (R): The ethyl groups are replaced by hydrogen atoms.
(A) Both (A) and (R) are true.
(B) Both (A) and (R) are false.
(C) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(D) (A) is false, but (R) is true.
30. For hardening of plaster of paris cast of foot prints, following substance is added:
(A) Sodium chloride
(B) Sodium carbonate
(C) Talcum powder
(D) Sodium sulphate
31. When the temperature of a liquid is raised
(A) Its refractive index increases
(B) Its refractive index decreases
(C) Its refractive index disappears
(D) Its refractive index doesn’t change
32. The skid marks on the road in a vehicular accident may give an indication of
(A) Make of the vehicle
(B) Speed of the vehicle
(C) Weight of the vehicle
(D) Height of the vehicle
33. Chemical etching is a method for restoration of erased marks on
34. Scales are found on the following fibre:
35. Fractures due to heat are
(C) Hackle marks
36. Which of the following type of abrasions are associated in sexual assault over the thigh of a woman?
37. The chromosome pattern in Turner’s syndrome is
38. Cusp of Carabelli is found on
(A) Incisors Central
39. ABO grouping is based on
(A) Red cell surface antigen
(B) Plasma proteins
(C) Red cell enzyme
(D) Nuclear chromatin
40. The total number of bones in the human skeleton in an adult is
41. In handwriting comparison the crossing in ‘t’ and the dots in ‘i’ and ‘j’ are known as
(A) Connective signs
(B) Diacrytic signs
(C) Loop signs
(D) Shoulder signs
42. Which of the following disease affects handwriting?
(A) Chronic Leukaemia
(B) Chronic Malaria
43. The following is a sign of forgery:
(B) Connecting strokes
(C) Pen lifts
(D) All of the above
44.The most suitable solvent system for thin layer chromatography/paper chromatography of inks is
(A) N-butanol: pyridine: water (3: 1: 1.5)
(B) Amyl alcohol: acetic acid: chloroform (6: 1: 2)
(C) Ethanol: Acetone: acetic acid (4: 1: 5)
(D) Amyl alcohol: acetic acid: pyridine (6: 1: 2)
45. The following is the most acceptable method for revealing indented writing:
(A) Oblique lighting
(B) Intense lighting
(C) Rubbing with a pencil lead
46. Cadaveric spasm indicates
(C) Natural death
(D) Last act of a person before death
47. The sequence of post-mortem changes in a cadaver includes
(A) Rigor mortis, primary flaccidity, secondary flaccidity, marbling
(B) Primary flaccidity, secondary flaccidity, rigor mortis, marbling
(C) Marbling, secondary flaccidity, primary flaccidity, rigor mortis
(D) Primary flaccidity, rigor mortis, secondary flaccidity, marbling
48. “Taches Noire Scleroitiques” is a post-mortem feature seen in
49. The following are examples of unnatural sexual offences
(iii) Buccal coitus
(A) (i), (ii) and (iii) are correct.
(B) (ii) and (iv) are correct.
(C) (i), (ii) and (iv) are correct.
(D) (i), (iii) and (iv) are correct.
50. The criminal responsibility of a mentally ill person is stated under the following section of Indian law?
(A) CrPC 84
(B) CrPC 80
(C) IPC 84
(D) IPC 80
1- Dying declaration is to be preferably recorded by (A) Doctor (B) Police (C) Magistrate (D) Jury Member Answer: (C)Solved Objective Question(MCQs)-Forensic Science-1st Set — Advocatetanmoy Law Library
Laws and Principles of Forensic Science
Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science.
Every object, natural or man-made, has an individuality which is not duplicated in any other object.
1. Law of Individuality
Anything and everything involved in a crime, has an individuality. If the same is established, it connects the crime and the criminal.
This principle at first sight appears to be contrary to common beliefs and observations. The grains of sand or common salt, seeds of plants or twins look exactly alike.
2. Principle of exchange
Contact exchange traces is principle of exchange. It was first enunciated by the French scientist, Edmond Locard. Commonly known as Edmond Locard’s maxim on Interchange.
According to the principle, when a criminal or his instruments of crime come in contact with the victim or the objects surrounding him, they leave traces. Likewise, the criminal or his instruments pick up traces from the same contact.
3. Law of progressive change
“Change is inevitable” , this also applies to object. Different types of objects may take different time spans.
The criminal undergoes progressive changes. If he is not apprehended in time, he becomes unrecognizable.
The scene of occurrence undergoes rapid changes. The weather, the vegetable growth, and the living beings make extensive changes in comparatively short periods.
Samples degrade with time, Bodies decompose, tire tracks & bite marks fade, the firearm barrel loosen, metal objects rust, etc.
4. Principle of comparison
“Only the likes can be compared” is the principle of comparison.
It emphasize the necessity of providing like samples and specimens for comparisons with the questioned items.
A questioned hair can only be compared to another hair sample, same with tool marks, bite marks, tire marks, etc.
A specimen obtained by writing on the same wall, at the same height and with the same instrument and then photographed. It can be matched.
Once handwriting available on a photograph allegedly written on a wall was compared with the specimen written on paper. It did not give worthwhile results.
5. Principle of analysis
The Analysis can be no better than the sample analyzed.
Improper sampling and contamination render the best analysis useless.
The principle emphasizes the necessity of correct sampling and correct packing for effective use of experts.
6. Law of probability
All identification, definite or indefinite, are made, consciously or unconsciously, on the basis of probability.
Probability is mostly misunderstood. If we say that according to probability a particular fingerprint has come from the given source, but it is not a definite opinion.
Probability is a mathematical concept. It determines the chances of occurrence of a particular event in a particular way.
If “P” represents probability, “Ns” the number of ways in which the event can successfully occur (with equal facility) and “Nf” the number of ways in which it can fail ( with equal facility) , the probability of success is given by the formula:
7. Law Of Circumstantial Facts
“facts do not lie, men can and do”
Evidences given by eye witnesses or victims may not always be accurate.
Sometimes victims may intentionally lie or sometimes because of poor senses (such as low sight, unclear hearing), exaggeration & assumptions.
According to Karl Marx “True belief only becomes knowledge when backed by some kind of investigation and evidence”.
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Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science…READ MORE….
A new proof-of-concept study by researchers at the University at Albany in New York has developed a mass spectrometry-based technique for the rapid species prediction of blow fly larvae for use in forensic investigations.
Entomological evidence (evidence relating to insects) has proven invaluable to forensic investigations for decades, particularly in the estimation of time since death. Insects which feed on decomposing remains, known as necrophagous insects, will colonise a body in a reasonably predictable pattern, with different insects arriving at different stages throughout the decomposition process. Different species of flies, beetles and mites are commonly encountered. Blow flies in particular will often arrive at the scene within minutes of death to lay eggs on the body. As these eggs hatch, larvae (or maggots) emerge to feed on the decomposing remains. By studying the type and age of insects present at a scene, it may be possible to estimate the time since death, or postmortem interval.
The ability to achieve this hinges on the correct identification of insect species, which is unfortunately not always straightforward. The larvae of different species of blow fly are visually very similar, thus difficult to distinguish by eye. For this reason, maggots are often reared to maturity for species identification, with adult blow flies exhibiting more distinguishing physical differences. Inevitably the rearing of maggots to adulthood is a time-consuming process that requires the expertise of a forensic entomologist.
In recent years, researchers have tried to develop more rapid approaches to insect species identification, particularly using chemical analysis. Researchers at the University at Albany in New York have been applying direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) to the analysis of insect evidence to provide a rapid species identification tool. In DART-MS, the sample is placed between the DART ion source and the inlet of the mass spectrometer, allowing chemical components in the sample to be ionised and drawn into the MS for direct analysis. DART-MS requires minimal or no sample preparation and results can be obtained almost instantly. Using this technique, Rabi Musah and her team have already demonstrated the ability to determine the species of larvae, pupae and adult flies, highlighting a promising new tool in rapid species identification in forensic entomology.
However, until now this research has focused on the analysis of individual species. In a real-world scenario, maggots present on the body may consist of multiple different species, therefore any techniques developed for rapid species identification of larvae must be able to work with mixed samples. In a recent study, the team have taken the method one step further by examining the potential to identify larvae from mixed species.
Blow flies of various species were collected from Manhattan, New York. Maggots were submerged in 70% ethanol and the solution exposed to the ion source of the DART-MS to produce chemical signatures of both individual species and combinations of species. Mixtures of two, three, four, fix and six different species were analysed. Using the chemical profiles produced, a predictive model was constructed for the subsequent identification of unknown insect samples. Using this model, maggot species could be established with an accuracy of up to 94% and a confidence interval of 80-95%. Individual insect species are readily differentiated, with different species producing distinct chemical profiles. Similarly, mixtures of two different species could also be differentiated. As might be expected, samples containing a higher number of species were more difficult to differentiate.
Although only a proof-of-concept study and further validation is required, the study demonstrates that DART-MS could offer a way of rapidly determining the species of blowfly larvae, thus allowing investigators to establish which insects are present at the scene of a death and work out postmortem interval faster.
Beyramysoltan, S. Ventura, M. I. Rosati, J. Y. Giffen, J. E. Musah, R. A. Identification of the Species Constituents of Maggot Populations Feeding on Decomposing Remains—Facilitation of the Determination of Post Mortem Interval and Time Since Tissue Infestation through Application of Machine Learning and Direct Analysis in Real Time-Mass Spectrometry. Analytical Chem, 2020, In Press.
A new proof-of-concept study by researchers at the University at Albany in New York has developed a mass spectrometry-based technique for the rapid species prediction of blow fly larvae for use in forensic investigations. Entomological evidence (evidence relating to insects) has proven invaluable to forensic investigations for decades, particularly in the estimation of time since […]
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