Heaviest Organ of Human Body is Liver while Lightest Organ is Lung. The weight of organ is help to determine that whether it is normal or pathological.Weight of Organs in Human Body — Forensic’s blog
Laws and Principles of Forensic Science
Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science.
Every object, natural or man-made, has an individuality which is not duplicated in any other object.
1. Law of Individuality
Anything and everything involved in a crime, has an individuality. If the same is established, it connects the crime and the criminal.
This principle at first sight appears to be contrary to common beliefs and observations. The grains of sand or common salt, seeds of plants or twins look exactly alike.
2. Principle of exchange
Contact exchange traces is principle of exchange. It was first enunciated by the French scientist, Edmond Locard. Commonly known as Edmond Locard’s maxim on Interchange.
According to the principle, when a criminal or his instruments of crime come in contact with the victim or the objects surrounding him, they leave traces. Likewise, the criminal or his instruments pick up traces from the same contact.
3. Law of progressive change
“Change is inevitable” , this also applies to object. Different types of objects may take different time spans.
The criminal undergoes progressive changes. If he is not apprehended in time, he becomes unrecognizable.
The scene of occurrence undergoes rapid changes. The weather, the vegetable growth, and the living beings make extensive changes in comparatively short periods.
Samples degrade with time, Bodies decompose, tire tracks & bite marks fade, the firearm barrel loosen, metal objects rust, etc.
4. Principle of comparison
“Only the likes can be compared” is the principle of comparison.
It emphasize the necessity of providing like samples and specimens for comparisons with the questioned items.
A questioned hair can only be compared to another hair sample, same with tool marks, bite marks, tire marks, etc.
A specimen obtained by writing on the same wall, at the same height and with the same instrument and then photographed. It can be matched.
Once handwriting available on a photograph allegedly written on a wall was compared with the specimen written on paper. It did not give worthwhile results.
5. Principle of analysis
The Analysis can be no better than the sample analyzed.
Improper sampling and contamination render the best analysis useless.
The principle emphasizes the necessity of correct sampling and correct packing for effective use of experts.
6. Law of probability
All identification, definite or indefinite, are made, consciously or unconsciously, on the basis of probability.
Probability is mostly misunderstood. If we say that according to probability a particular fingerprint has come from the given source, but it is not a definite opinion.
Probability is a mathematical concept. It determines the chances of occurrence of a particular event in a particular way.
If “P” represents probability, “Ns” the number of ways in which the event can successfully occur (with equal facility) and “Nf” the number of ways in which it can fail ( with equal facility) , the probability of success is given by the formula:
7. Law Of Circumstantial Facts
“facts do not lie, men can and do”
Evidences given by eye witnesses or victims may not always be accurate.
Sometimes victims may intentionally lie or sometimes because of poor senses (such as low sight, unclear hearing), exaggeration & assumptions.
According to Karl Marx “True belief only becomes knowledge when backed by some kind of investigation and evidence”.
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Forensic Science is the science which has developed its own Laws and Principles. The Laws and Principles of all the natural sciences are the bases of Forensic Science…READ MORE….
New research out of the University of Alberta – Canada, finds that dogs can detect gasoline in quantities as small as one billionth of a teaspoon.
Canines have been used in arson investigations for about 30 years, beginning when the US ATF partnered up with the Connecticut State Police in 1986 to train an accelerant detecting canine (ADC) named Mattie.
Mattie was a Labrador Retriever, working for the Connecticut State Police, and she was trained to alert to 17 different ignitable liquids. We all know that Mattie and her kind have an incredible sense of smell, but just how sensitive, is amazing.
Dogs typically have about 200 million receptor cells in their noses that help them identify scents and odors, compared to about 5 million cells in a human nose. Further increasing their sense of smell is an organ located in the roof of their mouths that allows them to basically “taste” a smell.
Just like a human, a dog can smell an odor that comes directly from an item, and like us, they can smell an odor left on a surface after the source of the odor has been removed, the difference is that a dog’s sense of smell eclipses ours, and it even beats electronic equipment designed for hydrocarbon detection.
In fact, man made odor detecting devices detect hydrocarbon components in the neighborhood of parts per million, where dogs an detect amounts as small as .01 micro liters. And if that wasn’t enough to favor the dog, a dog pinpoints the area of the source odor, where a man made instrument cannot.
Lastly, a dog can actually differentiate between true accelerants and similar gases that an instrument cannot do.
K9’s are often used in arson investigation, allowing investigators to locate items and debri that presumptively contains accelerants. These areas shown as “hits” by the dog will be collected, and sent to a lab for scientific analysis.
Click the link below for more info on accelerant detecting K9’s.
According to Brainwave Science an average person hears about 200 lies every day. It is no surprise as we learn how to lie in our early development stages and by the time we become adults, we get pro at lying! The only catch here is the question, ‘how to catch a liar?’
Technological advancements in different fields of crime scene investigation have drastically changed the landscape. Today, law enforcement can use technology to detect and solve criminal activity happening at the moment. The approach is more proactive than reactive. Forensic Science has completely changed the way crimes are investigated, prosecuted, and adjudicated.
Biometrics work very well to confirm the identity of the person. They are being utilized in ID cards, bank cards, phones, and other technological devices and come in various forms such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, and the spatial geometry of the faces, etc. Biometric systems must be able to accommodate changes to the biometric over time which may be caused by aging, illness, or injury. Let us not forget though that external subject identification via its Automated Biometrics Identification System aims to ensure national security and public safety. It can only, however, identify the person’s identity externally, but not the mind and schemes of the person.
Brain Fingerprinting – This technique is quite ideal for discovering if a piece of information is collected in a person’s brain through EEG. It correctly measures the electric brainwaves science which helps us tap into the person’s familiarity with the crime scene. The major challenge in using this technique is the need for extensive training and the cumbersome nature of software and hardware application needs specialized neuroscientists to administer tests that may not be learned by investigators. It is more of a service-based model where the expert is needed to constantly conduct testing.
iCognative technology is the only available neuroscience-based forensic technology that is over 99.9% accurate, applicable in almost all investigations, is based on proven P300 science, has been used in over 100 real-life cases, and is virtually unbeatable. Today many countries and intelligence agencies in the world are already reaping the benefits afforded by it. To top it all it supports human rights and eliminates torture.
- identifies criminals from innocents, detects presence or absence or information in the brain
- specifically screens privileged information holders, specific training like IED/EOD bomb-making
- helps apprehend terrorism and crime supporters and sympathizers
- helps identify foot soldiers from kingpins in organized crimes
- successfully detects intent to harm and cause violence
distinguishes between witness and perpetrator
DNA and Fingerprints are the first go-to methods for all investigations. They are accepted as a piece of evidence in the court of law. However, the issue with them is that the crime scene must remain uncorrupted and the collection of evidence must be done properly to eliminate cross-contamination. Preservation of these evidence is also a labor-intensive task that must be conducted by professionals who have been extensively trained in this field.
Lie Detector/Polygraphs are not accepted as evidence but are extensively used by law enforcement agencies to eliminate innocents from the suspects. The accuracy rates of Lie detectors or Polygraph has been hotly debated. People are able to beat them, and the interpretation of results is done subjectively by the examiner. Most psychologists agree that there is little evidence that polygraph tests can accurately detect lies – American psychological Association (APA)
Did you know that an average person hears about 200 lies every day? It is no surprise as we learn how to lie in our early development stages and by the time we become adults, we get pro at lying! The only catch here is the question, ‘how to catch a liar?’ Technol
Civilizations that have thousands of years invested in perfecting a field tend to NAIL IT with more accuracy….
Many research and development solutions can be obtained through information sharing from countries that have had centuries of trial and error based experiementation. Seek to learn from mentors in the field, and save yourself from complicating your analysis.
China has been investing time, energy and resources into forensic science since the 1980’s and globally-renowned forensic scientist Henry Chang-yu Lee believes it’s about to pay off tipping China to become a world leader in high-tech evidence collection.
“I believe the technology in China will be more advanced than ever in the United States within five years,” the Chinese-American expert said in a recent interview with China Daily.
Lee, who has racked up more than five decades of experience in forensic science, has worked on a number of high-profile criminal cases in the US, but has also shared his wealth of knowledge with students, lawyers, judges and law enforcement in China over the years.
“The apparatus and devices used to identify fingerprints or footprints, for example, were very simple when I first visited Chinese forensic laboratories,” he said.
However, he has seen the technology improve over the years and there have been many advances, particularly in electronic evidence collection and fraud prevention by means of real-time monitoring.
In 2016, Lee and several other experts established the Silk Road Forensic Consortium in Xi’an, Shaanxi province, to fight crime and safeguard security by boosting scientific exchanges among countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative.
The consortium, which has 150 members from 30 countries and regions, provides an open platform for forensic specialists, police officers and judges to share ideas and difficulties as well as experiences in DNA identification studies.
Lee, who acts as chairman, said, “Although we speak different languages in our daily lives, we all speak the same ‘language’ at work, and that’s the language of the criminal investigation. We share the same goal – to speak for the dead using forensic science.”
In September, at the organisation’s third annual conference in Yantai, Shandong province, Lee announced plans to unify DNA identification standards among its members to try and build a mutual DNA database that can better solve criminal cases.
Unified standards are essential to the world of forensic science, he told China Daily.
“If we can achieve unification in China, it can be extended across Asia, to the consortium and finally the world,” he added. “It would mean a brighter future for forensic science.”
6. European Network of Forensic Institutes
Although not a country, the European Network of Forensic Institutes (ENFSI) is recognized as a pre-eminent voice in forensic science worldwide. It is a network of forensic specialists covering a broad range of fields of expertise, from 38 countries geographically spread across Europe:
Austria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Malta, Montenegro, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and the United Kingdom.
The ENFSI has seventeen Expert Working Groups working on a diverse range of forensic specialisms, from textiles and hair to explosives and firearms. It also provides invaluable training to police officers and crime scene investigators.
Police in the German state of Bavaria have the power to use forensic DNA profiling after a controversial law passed in 2018 in the Landtag, the state parliament in Munich. The law was the first in Germany to allow authorities to use DNA to help determine the physical characteristics, such as eye colour, of an unknown culprit.
The new DNA rules are part of a broader law which has drawn criticism of the wide surveillance powers it gives the state’s police to investigate people they deem an “imminent danger,” people who haven’t necessarily committed any crimes but might be planning to do so.
The move was prompted, in part, by the rape and murder of a medical student in Freiburg, Germany, in late 2016. An asylum seeker, originally from Afghanistan, was convicted of the murder and sentenced to life in prison.
But some authorities complained that they could have narrowed their search more quickly if they had been able to use trace DNA to predict what the suspect would look like.
Federal and state laws previously only allowed investigators to use DNA to look for an exact match between crime scene evidence and a potential culprit, either in a database of known criminals or from a suspect.
Germany also forms part of the aforementioned ENFSI.
4. South Korea
To say that smartphones have changed the digital forensic landscape is an understatement. The device has become the core of every criminal investigation and helped propel digital forensics as a serious, scientific investigation tool.
South Korea is leading the way in digital forensics, with its largest digital forensic firm, Hancom GMD, playing a crucial role in prosecuting some of the country’s most powerful politicians.
In late 2016, South Korea was rocked by one of its biggest political corruption scandals in history – its President Park Guen-hye was accused of bribery and by law, investigators only had 60 days to investigate and prosecute.
They had confiscated over 300 smartphones as from suspects and needed to analyse tens of thousands of phone records and chat messages within a tight deadline. Hancom GMD successfully analysed all of the data in the 300 smartphones and extracted crucial evidence that led to several convictions.
With 5G set to be rolled out globally this year, forensic teams in South Korea are already preparing for this further growth in the collection of digital evidence.
Hancom GMD is planning to launch a service that recovers data from the cloud, though privacy regulations in each country are expected to be a challenge to overcome.
3. United Kingdom
Prior to its closure in 2012, the UK Forensic Science Service (FSS) was a world-leader in forensic technology. It pioneered the use of the handheld breath alcohol roadside tester and the DNA national database was first worked on and initially tested on all staff and police forces to ensure its reliability.
The organisation later pioneered the use of large scale DNA profiling for forensic identification and crime detection when it moved the facilities to Birmingham.
This enabled the launch of the world’s first DNA database on 10 April 1995. The FSS’s innovative and highly sensitive DNA profiling technique called LCN (low copy number) was used in convicting Antoni Imiela (the M25 rapist).
As well as, Ronald Castree (for the murder of Lesley Molseed in 1975) but the organisation came under attack when it failed to recover blood stains from a shoe in the murder of Damilola Taylor.
Forensic laboratories in the UK are now privately-owned but are experiencing similar financial difficulties, a recent inquiry by the House of Lords heard.
Mark Pearse, the commercial director in the forensics division of Eurofins, one of the three major providers in the UK, described an “unsustainable toxic set of conditions” when he appeared before the inquiry.
Representatives from the two other largest providers – Key Forensics, which had to be bailed out by police last year after going into administration, and Cellmark – raised similar concerns.
However, that’s not to say that the UK is not involved in researching and implementing new forensic technologies.
Forensic scientists are currently working with the British military to open the United Kingdom’s first body farm — a site where researchers will be able to study the decomposition of human remains.
Details are not yet finalized, but the plans are at an advanced stage: project leaders hope this year to open the farm, also known as a forensic cemetery or taphonomy facility, after the discipline devoted to the study of decay and fossilization.
Such sites generate data on tissue and bone degradation under controlled conditions, along with chemical changes in the soil, air and water around a corpse, to help criminal and forensic investigators.
2. The Netherlands
The Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) is one of the world’s leading forensic laboratories. From its state-of-the-art, purpose-built premises in The Hague, the NFI provides products and services to a wide range of national and international clients.
To ensure that their work remains at the forefront of developments, the Netherlands Forensic Institute invests heavily in Research and Development. In this way, it lays the foundations for innovative forensic methods and technologies that will play an important part in the coming decades.
Amongst these innovative forensic technologies is the invention of Hansken, a system that can store large quantities and diverse data easily from different sources. All data is stored, indexed, enriched and made rapidly searchable, cutting down the turnaround time of forensic evidence.
It now contains over 150 samples of glass from a large number cases. In several cases, this glass database has linked suspects to several crimes.
Offenders who carry out robberies, smash-and-grab raids or ARM gas attacks may have splinters of glass on their clothes or in the soles of their shoes and these splinters of glass can remain in place for months, even though they are barely visible to the naked eye, if at all.
These splinters can be of great value. The composition of each piece of glass is unique because of minuscule contaminants in the raw materials for making glass.
By comparing the unique composition of splinters of glass found on a suspect to glass from the database, it is possible to check whether that glass originates from a crime committed earlier.
The glass analysts of the NFI measure the concentration of twenty elements in each piece of glass. This produces a kind of ‘chemical fingerprint’ of the material.
1.United States of America
It will come as no surprise that at the forefront of cutting-edge forensic technology is the USA, home to over 400 crime labs and the biggest crime lab in the world, the FBI Laboratory.
To help train government and industry organisations on cyberattack prevention, as part of a research project for the U.S. Army, scientists at The University of Texas at San Antonio, have developed the first framework to score the agility of cyber attackers and defenders.
“The DOD and U.S. Army recognize that the cyber domain is as important a battlefront as ground, air and sea,” said Dr. Purush Iyer, division chief, network sciences at Army Research Office, an element of the Army Futures Command’s Army Research Laboratory.
“Being able to predict what the adversaries will likely do provides opportunities to protect and to launch countermeasures. This work is a testament to successful collaboration between academia and government.”
The framework developed by the researchers will help government and industry organizations visualize how well they out-maneuver attacks.
Their work is published in IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, a top journal for cybersecurity.
Education and training programs in the field of forensics are also on the rise, supported by organisations such as The Forensic Sciences Foundation and the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
In fact, there are 485 Forensic Science schools in the US, so it’s no wonder that it is the home of the some of the most influential forensic scientists, such as Dr. Michael M. Baden and Ellis R. Kerley, and is sure to produce a great deal more talent in the future.
This is certainly an exciting time to be working in forensic science, with the challenges presented by the world of AI, Smartphones and Cloud data calling for rapid improvements to existing technology.
With these challenges comes the need for those countries with more developed forensic facilities to provide training and education opportunities to those in less developed areas so that science can play its rightful part in the criminal justice system.
For now, these are among the 7 countries who have the most advanced forensic technology and it is not the end. As the world continues to evolve, so will technology and the forensic industry itself.
Hi! I’m Isabella and I’m an Italian living in the UK studying for a Masters in Crime & Justice. I currently work in the prison education sector and have a background in teaching, having completed a PGCE after reading languages at the University of Durham. I love travelling, cooking, reading and playing the piano.
Technology is at its peak moment and with it has bought about some of the finest forensic techs. Here are 7 countries with the best forensic technology.
A counting statistic is simply a numerical count of the number of some item such as “one million missing children”, “three million homeless”, and “3.5 million STEM jobs by 2025.” Counting statistics are frequently deployed in public policy debates, the marketing of goods and services, and other contexts. Particularly when paired with an emotionally engaging story, counting statistics can be powerful and persuasive. Counting statistics can be highly misleading or even completely false. This article discusses how to evaluate counting statistics and includes a detailed list of steps to follow to evaluate a counting statistic.
Checklist for Counting Statistics
- Find the original primary source of the statistic. Ideally you should determine the organization or individual who produced the statistic. If the source is an organization you should find out who specifically produced the statistic within the organization. If possible find out the name and role of each member involved in the production of the statistic. Ideally you should have a full citation to the original source that could be used in a high quality scholarly peer-reviewed publication.
- What is the background, agenda, and possible biases of the individual or organization that produced the statistic? What are their sources of funding?What is their track record, both in general and in the specific field of the statistic? Many statistics are produced by “think tanks” with various ideological and financial biases and commitments.
- How is the item being counted defined. This is very important. Many questionable statistics use a broad, often vague definition of the item paired with personal stories of an extreme or shocking nature to persuade. For example, the widely quoted “one million missing children” in the United States used in the 1980’s — and even today — rounded up from an official FBI number of about seven hundred thousand missing children, the vast majority of whom returned home safely within a short time, paired with rare cases of horrific stranger abductions and murders such as the 1981 murder of six year old Adam Walsh.
- If the statistic is paired with specific examples or personal stories, how representative are these examples and stories of the aggregate data used in the statistic? As with the missing children statistics in the 1980’s it is common for broad definitions giving large numbers to be paired with rare, extreme examples.
- How was the statistic measured and/or computed? At one extreme, some statistics are wild guesses by interested parties. In the early stages of the recognition of a social problem, there may be no solid reliable measurements; activists are prone to providing an educated guess. The statistic may be the product of an opinion survey. Some statistics are based on detailed, high quality measurements.
- What is the appropriate scale to evaluate the counting statistic? For example, the United States Census estimates the total population of the United States as of July 1, 2018 at 328 million. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates about 156 million people are employed full time in May 2019. Thus “3.5 million STEM jobs” represents slightly more than one percent of the United States population and slightly more than two percent of full time employees.
- Are there independent estimates of the same or a reasonably similar statistic? If yes, what are they? Are the independent estimates consistent? If not, why not? If there are no independent estimates, why not? Why is there only one source? For example, estimates of unemployment based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Population Survey (the source of the headline unemployment number reported in the news) and the Bureau’s payroll survey have a history of inconsistency.
- Is the statistic consistent with other data and statistics that are expected to be related? If not, why doesn’t the expected relationship hold? For example, we expect low unemployment to be associated with rising wages. This is not always the case, raising questions about the reliability of the official unemployment rate from the Current Population Survey.
- Is the statistic consistent with your personal experience or that of your social circle?If not, why not? For example, I have seen high unemployment rates among my social circle at times when the official unemployment rate was quite low.
- Does the statistic feel right? Sometimes, even though the statistic survives detailed scrutiny — following the above steps — it still doesn’t seem right. There is considerable controversy over the reliability of intuition and “feelings.” Nonetheless, many people believe a strong intuition often proves more accurate than a contradictory “rational analysis.” Often if you meditate on an intuition or feeling, more concrete reasons for the intuition will surface.
(C) 2019 by John F. McGowan, Ph.D.
John F. McGowan, Ph.D. solves problems using mathematics and mathematical software, including developing gesture recognition for touch devices, video compression and speech recognition technologies. He has extensive experience developing software in C, C++, MATLAB, Python, Visual Basic and many other programming languages. He has been a Visiting Scholar at HP Labs developing computer vision algorithms and software for mobile devices. He has worked as a contractor at NASA Ames Research Centerinvolved in the research and development of image and video processing algorithms and technology. He has published articles on the origin and evolution of life, the exploration of Mars (anticipating the discovery of methane on Mars), and cheap access to space. He has a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and a B.S. in physics from the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
A counting statistic is simply a numerical count of the number of some item such as “one million missing children”, “three million homeless”, and “3.5 million STEM jobs by 2025.” Counting statistics are frequently deployed in public policy debates, the marketing of goods and services, and other contexts. Particularly when paired with an emotionally engaging […]
The term “biometrics” is derived from the Greek words “bio” (life) and “metrics” (to measure).
Biometrics is the technical term for body measurements and calculations.
Biometrics is the measurement and statistical analysis of people’s unique physical and behavioral characteristics.
Biometrics allows a person to be identified and authenticated based on a set of recognizable and verifiable data, which are unique and specific to them.
Biometrics authentication is the process of comparing data for the person’s characteristics in order to determine resemblance.
HISTORY OF BIOMETRICS
1858 – First systematic capture of hand images for identification purposes is recorded.
1870 – Bertillon develops anthropometries to identify individuals.
1892 – Galton develops a classification system for fingerprints.
1896 – Henry develops a fingerprint classification system
1903 – NY State Prisons begin using fingerprints.
1960s – Face recognition becomes semi-automated.
1960 – First model of acoustic speech production is created.
1963 – Hughes research paper on fingerprint automation is published.
1974- First commercial hand geometry systems become available.
1976 – First prototype system for speaker recognition is developed.
1986 – Exchange of fingerprint minutiae data standard is published.
1988 – First semi-automated facial recognition system is deployed.
1991 – Face detection is pioneered, making real time face recognition possible.
1992 – Biometric Consortium is established within US Government.
1994 – Palm System is benchmarked.
1996 – Hand geometry is implemented at the Olympic Games.
1996 – NIST begins hosting annual speaker recognition evaluations.
1997 – First commercial, generic biometric interoperability standard is published.
1998- FBI launches COOlS (DNA forensic database).
1999 – FBI’s IAFIS major components become operational.
2001 – Face recognition is used at the Super Bowl in Tampa, Florida.
2002 – ISO/IEC standards committee on biometrics is established.
2004 – First statewide automated palm print databases are deployed in the US.
2008 – U.S. Government begin coordinating biometric database use.
2010 – U.S. national security apparatus utilizes biometrics for terrorist identification.
2011 – Biometric identification used to identify body of Osama bin Laden.
TYPES OF BIOMETRICS
Biometrics Can Be Divided Into Three Main Categories Of Characteristics:
The identification of an individual using the analysis of segments from DNA.
The identification of an individual using the shape of the ear.
EYES – IRIS RECOGNITION & RETINA RECOGNITION
IRIS RECOGNITION- The use of the features found in the iris to identify an individual.
RETINA RECOGNITION- The use of patterns of veins in the back of the eye to accomplish recognition.
The analysis of facial features or patterns for the authentication or recognition of an individuals identity.
The use of the ridges and valleys (minutiae) found on the surface tips of a human finger to identify an individual.
FINGER GEOMETRY RECOGNITION
The use of 3D geometry of the finger to determine identity.
HAND GEOMETRY RECOGNITION
The use of the geometric features of the hand such as the lengths of fingers and the width of the hand to identify an individual.
Vein recognition is a type of biometrics that can be used to identify individuals based on the vein patterns in the human finger or palm.
The use of an individuals odour to determine identity.
The authentication of an individual by the analysis of handwriting style, specifically the signature. Technology is available to check two scanned signatures using advances algorithms.
The use of the unique characteristics of a persons typing for establishing identity.
VOICE / SPEAKER RECOGNITION
There are two major applications of speaker recognition:
Voice – Speaker Verification / Authentication
Voice – Speaker Identification
In forensic applications, it is common to first perform a speaker identification process to create a list of “best matches” and then perform a series of verification processes to determine a conclusive match.
Voice recognition analyzes audio input for specific patterns in speech or sound. Each voice, or common noise, has a recognizable wavelength pattern that can aid in identification of a specific individual.
The use of an individuals walking style or gait to determine identity.
Biometrics allows a person to be identified and authenticated based on a set of recognizable and verifiable data, which are unique and specific to them. This video covers following Points of Biometrics: 💡Introduction 💡Characteristics 💡History & 💡Types.
Everything we touched, leave behind our unique impression on it, which is Our fingerprints.
No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints.
Fingerprint identification also known as “Dactyloscopy”.
Fingerprints are the tiny ridges, whorls and valley patterns on the tip of each fingers. They develop from pressure on a baby’s tiny, developing fingers in the womb.
CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS
By FRANCIS GALTON
A well-known British scientist sir Francis Galton published his first book on fingerprint in 1892. His important work include method for classification for fingerprint which are divided into three groups-
By WILLIAM J. HERSHEL
While working for the East India Company in Bengal, India, Sir William James Herschel first used fingerprints on native contracts. After a decade, he had accumulated a file of fingerprints.
By EDWARD HENRY
Henry Classification of Fingerprinting was accepted as common practice throughout England and its territorial holdings and in the United States.
Under the henry system, fingerprints divided into two classes:
•Those which are given numerical value. (whorls and composites).
•Those which doesn’t give numerical value. (loops and arches).
All patters are divided as follows:
The henry classification system assigns each finger A number according to the order in which it is located in the hand, beginning with the right thumb as number 1 and ending with the left pinky as number 10.
• The system also assigns a numerical value to fingers that contain a whorl pattern; fingers 1 and 2 each have a value of 16,
• Fingers 3 and 4 = 8,
• Fingers 5 and 6 = 4,
• Fingers 7 and 8 = 2,
• Final two fingers = 1.
• Fingers with a non-whorl pattern, such as an arch or loop pattern, have a value of zero.
• The sum of the even finger value is then calculated and placed in the numerator of a fraction.
• The sum of the odd finger values is place in the denominator.
• The value of 1 is added to each sum of the whorls with the maximum obtainable on either side of the fraction begin 32.
• Thus, the primary classification is a fraction between 1/1 to 32/32, where 1/1 would indicate no whorl patterns and 32/32 would mean that all fingers had whorl patterns.
By JUAN VUCETICH
Vucetich is credited with the first positive criminal identification as, in 1892, he was able to extract a set of prints off a door and thus identify a woman as the culprit in a double homicide.
CHARACTERISTICS OF FINGERPRINT
Class characteristics are the characteristics that narrow the print down to a group but not an individual.
The Three Fingerprint Class Types Are;
Arches are the simplest type of fingerprints that are formed by ridges that enter on one side of the print and exit on the other. No deltas are present.
About 5 % of the world’s populations have arch patterns.
Loops must have one delta and one or more ridges that enter and leave on the same side. These patterns are named for their positions related to the radius and ulna bones.
About 60-65 % of the world’s populations have loop patterns.
Whorls have at least one ridge that makes (or tends to make) a complete circuit. They also have at least two deltas.
About 30-35 % of the world’s populations have whorls patterns.
Individual characteristics are those characteristics that are unique to an individual.
They are tiny irregularities that appear within the friction ridges and are referred to as Galton’s details.
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By @forensicfield INTRODUCTION Everything we touched, leave behind our unique impression on it, which is Our fingerprints. No two people have exactly the same fingerprints. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints. Fingerprint identification also known as “Dactyloscopy”. Fingerprints are the tiny ridges, whorls and valley patterns on the tip of each fingers. […]
Structural engineering is a specialty within the field of civil engineering which focuses on the framework of structures and on designing those structures to withstand the stresses and pressures of their environment and remain safe, stable and secure throughout their use. To explain a little differently, it can be said that structural and consulting engineers […]