What to expect when you reach the border of life and death. A Medical Study. — JcgregSolutions

“We characterize the testimonies that people had and were able to identify that there is a unique recalled experience of death that is different to other experiences that people may have in the hospital or elsewhere,” Dr. Parnia said, “and that these are not hallucinations, they are not illusions, they are not delusions, they are […]

What to expect when you reach the border of life and death. A Medical Study. — JcgregSolutions

Do Inmates Need Educational Protocols?

ISO 13485
ISO 13485 Medical devices — Quality management systems — Requirements for regulatory purposes is an International Organization for Standardization standard published for the first time in 1996; it represents the requirements for a comprehensive quality management system for the design and manufacture of medical devices.

This standard supersedes earlier documents such as EN 46001 and EN 46002, the previously published ISO 13485, and ISO 13488.

The essentials of validation planning, protocol writing, and change management will be explained.

via ESSENTIALS OF VALIDATION – Do You Really Need It? — Compliance4all

Mandatory Hands-on Skills for Students and Inmates Decreases Crime and increases Quality of Life for All

How does hands-on skills training educational protocols correlate with life expectancy??

Do Inmates Need Educational Protocols?

What are hands-on skills? Skills training is in-demand, highly desirable skills such as hairstyling, dental assisting and commericial truck driving. These are examples of careers that enable the students/inmates to provide for themselves and their families. Hands-on skills have a strong correlation with decreased crime while simultaneously increasing life expectancy for everyone in society. Hands-on skills also ensure future economic sustainability and stability for a world that is dependent on hands-on skills for environmental sustainability.


Why Are Girls Reaching Puberty Earlier? via The DALE YEAGER Blog

Diet, Endocrine Disruptors, and the COVID-19 Pandemic are documented in this article.stealing years away from the childhood of young girls

An article by Martha Rosenberg explains the four factors which are directly correlated to early puberty in girls. Three of these: Diet, Endocrine Disruptors, and the COVID-19 Pandemic are documented in this article. But the one I want to focus on is Anxiety and Stress Within the Family. Dale Yeager

The age at which girls are reaching puberty is steadily falling. In 1840, the average girl was 16.5 years when she attained menarche—the onset of menstruation. By 1920, the age had dropped to 14.6; by 1950, it was 13.1; in 1980, 12.5; and 12.43 in 2020. By 2022, the percentage of U.S. girls who reached menarche by age 10 had risen to 10 percent from 7 percent.

By 2010, the average girl reached puberty at the age of 10.5. Not only is the drop in puberty age seen across race/ethnicity groups in the United States, but according to a study in the Journal of Adolescent Health, the same trend toward early puberty has also been reported in England, Israel, China, India, Korea, Ghana, Mexico, and Thailand.


There are many reasons why early onset puberty, also called precocious puberty, matters. Early puberty puts girls at increased risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and other cardiovascular diseases, low bone mineral density, gynecological/obstetric, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, neuro-cognitive, psychiatric and respiratory disorders, and cancer, according to medical papers. Children with precocious puberty “often stop growing earlier than usual” which can “cause them to be shorter than average as adults,” adds the Mayo clinic. Other scientific publications agree.

There are also psychological ramifications associated with early menarche. “Among adolescent girls, early puberty is associated with more depressive disorders, substance use disorders, eating disorders and disruptive behavior disorders,” according to an American Psychological Association article. Girls are also at increased risk of sexually transmitted diseases.

What Are the Causes of Early Puberty?

Most, if not all, medical professionals agree that the age of menarche is lowering but agreement ends there. There are many theories about the dramatic appearance of early puberty among so many girls, and it’s likely that many of them have a basis in fact and that more than one theory is accurate.


Research published in 2018 in the International Journal of Endocrinology that focused on a cohort of Chinese girls identified clear links between early puberty and diet.

An “unhealthy diet pattern, heavy in desserts and snacks, soft drinks, and fried food, was found to be significantly positively associated with precocious puberty in both boys and girls,” wrote the authors.

“This diet was implicated in the timing of puberty, probably in any of the three ways: high fat intake, high sugar, and obesity due to high-calorie consumption. Consumption of junk food, such as fried foods, had been convincingly linked to obesity and rapid weight gain, a potential predictor of earlier age at menarche and other markers of puberty.”

Certainly, the so-called Western diet has infiltrated countries that once observed local and traditional cuisines.

According to Dr. Robert Lustig, a professor of clinical pediatrics at the University of California–San Francisco’s Benioff Children’s Hospital, “Fatter girls have higher levels of the hormone leptin, which can lead to early puberty, which leads to higher estrogen levels, which leads to greater insulin resistance, causing girls to have yet more fat tissue, more leptin and more estrogen, the cycle feeding on itself, until their bodies physically mature.”

Endocrine Disruptors

Endocrine disruptors are chemicals that mimic and disrupt our hormone functioning and seem to lurk everywhere: in our food packaging, furniture, cleaning products, building materials, drinking water, gardens, cosmetics, and more. How badly have these unwanted chemicals invaded our world? Bisphenol A, a major endocrine disruptor often called BPA, was found in 90 percent of newborn infants tested by the Environmental Working Group along with more than 230 other chemicals!

Sadly, endocrine disruptors aren’t the only likely environmental culprits when it comes to tracing the roots of early puberty. Research published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health also associates metals such as manganese and lead “with the deregulation of the neuroendocrine system, which could potentially favor the appearance of precocious puberty in environmentally exposed children.”

Anxiety and Stress Within the Family

Research published in the journal Emergency Medicine International finds that the role of anxiety in the family system can contribute to early puberty. Girls with early puberty came from poorer households that were characterized by divorces and remarriages, according to the research. Girls whose parents divorced when they were between 3 and 8 years old were at greater risk. Father absenteeism is increasingly seen as a factor in girls who develop early puberty, say scientific papers.

“The absence of a biologically-related father has been shown to accelerate reproductive development,” write authors in the Journal of Adolescent Health. Two decades ago, researchers posited that “when girls encountered familial conditions that were unfavorable for survival (e.g., insecure and unsupportive family relationships), it was adaptive to become reproductively mature earlier. Since then, numerous empirical studies have confirmed that father absence predicts earlier maturation. Girls in father-absent homes are about twice as likely to experience menarche prior to age 12.”

The COVID-19 Pandemic

With its stress, forced isolation, the dominance of electronic communication, and negative effects on sleep and diet, the COVID-19 pandemic increased the occurrence of early puberty.

According to research in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics, “Due to lengthy periods of school closure, restrictions on activities, and changes in diet and sleep patterns, an increase in the frequency of obesity in children is to be expected,” wrote the authors.

“During the lock-down, children were not only out of school, but they also faced severe restrictions to their daily physical routines, and in this period of inactivity, it was inevitable that there would be an increase in screen-time. When all these contributing factors are combined, it is not difficult to predict that the situation could cause rapid weight gain.”

Sure enough, wrote the authors, “the onset of puberty was earlier in the pandemic period compared to the previous year.”

A similar phenomenon of increased early puberty was noted during the pandemic in Korea and in India.

Experts Weigh In

Dr. Jeanne Stolzer, a professor of child and adolescent development at the University of Nebraska, shared her thoughts with The Epoch Times. “I believe the early puberty we are witnessing is probably due to a convergence of variables.  However, I think that researchers need to be looking into two key variables: Screen use and COVID vaccinations. I also believe that lack of sunlight and physical activity may be contributing factors.”

“Although the multifarious effects of melatonin on the human gonadal system are not fully understood at this time, we do know that screen use clearly impacts melatonin levels,” she said. “Data indicates that melatonin affects oxytocin, vasopressin, and a plethora of growth hormones, therefore, early puberty may very well be related to increasing screen time as screen time disrupts the production of melatonin.”

Researchers also need to be looking into the correlation between vaccines and early puberty, observes Stolzer, “as preliminary data suggests that menstrual cycles have been adversely affected by the COVID vaccine. It stands to reason that age of puberty may also be impacted.”

One study, published in the International Journal of Clinical Practice in October, concluded that “COVID-19 infection and vaccination can affect the menstrual cycle in women.”

In a recent paper published in the International Journal of Sociology of the Family, Stolzer wrote, “Despite the scientific data demonstrating the plethora of negative effects associated with screen time, use of screens is increasing exponentially across the globe due in part to the world-wide pandemic.”

Yet, Stolzer laments, “As mounting scientific evidence continues to be published across continents confirming the negative effects associated with screen time, schools – from preschools to universities-are documenting significant increases in student screen time use.”

Stolzer said children “require large amounts of direct sunlight and rigorous outdoor physical activity if optimal development is to occur. As a direct result of the pandemic, access to the outdoors was severely limited in many communities thus hindering developmental processes exponentially.”

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An article by Martha Rosenberg explains the four factors which are directly correlated to early puberty in girls. Three of these: Diet, Endocrine Disruptors, and the COVID-19 Pandemic are documented in this article. But the one I want to focus on is Anxiety and Stress Within the Family. Dale Yeager

Why Are Girls Reaching Puberty Earlier? — The DALE YEAGER Blog

Using Hair as an Indicator of Antidepressant Use Post-Mortem via Forensic Bites

Source for header: “pharmaceuticals” by idea-saras is licensed under CC BY 2.0.

For forensic scientists, determining the cause of death is frequently fraught with uncertainties, especially depending on the state of the body and its surroundings at the time of death. Climate, animals, and duration of exposure to the elements contribute to a body’s decay in ways difficult to quantify. As a result, identifying how and when somebody passed away remains complicated. Thankfully, researchers are working to untangle all the elements that can contribute to someone’s death – including drugs. Typically, drug testing takes the form of a urine sample and conversation regarding history of drug use, whether illicit or prescribed. However, someone who is deceased is unable to provide these, so other ways of identifying drug use need to be developed.

Two labs led by Jytte Banner and Sys Stybe Johansen in the Department of Forensic Medicine at the University of Copenhagen decided to tackle this problem. They focused on a commonly-prescribed antidepressant, citalopram. Citalopram is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, the most common class of drugs prescribed to treat depression. As antidepressant prescriptions per year tripled over the past decade to ~71 million (as of 2018), forensic experts encounter antidepressants more frequently in their toxicological screens. However, it is difficult to determine the frequency and amount of the citalopram dose – current techniques can only confirm the presence or absence of the drug in postmortem analysis.

These groups aimed to define how citalopram levels in postmortem samples could indicate use of the drug while the person was alive. This would provide valuable information regarding compliance with prescribed doses and whether there was abuse of the drug prior to death. To do this, the group used a two-pronged approach: they analyzed citalopram levels in small (~1 cm) hair segments from deceased subjects and compared them to calculated estimated daily doses. Their hypothesis was that the levels of citalopram in hair segments would directly correspond with the patient’s citalopram intake during that period of hair growth (fig. 1).

Fig 1. A graphic depicting the hypothesis of the Banner and Johansen groups. The researchers believed that small segments of hair would contain levels of citalopram that directly correlate to the amount of citalopram consumption during that hair growth period. Created by Barbara Szynal in BioRender.

However, unfortunately, they found no correlation between estimated daily citalopram dose and the amount of citalopram in the postmortem hair segments. Instead, they found a correlation between hair color and citalopram concentration-to-dose ratios. Black or brown hair in the segment closest to the skin retained higher levels of citalopram and its metabolite, demethylcitalopram, than blond hair in the same segment, regardless of dosage (Fig. 2). The researchers speculate that this may be due to metabolite presence in the oil near the scalp as well as metabolite wash-out from farther segments of hair. With more research, this information can help estimate dosage based purely on hair samples without needing to obtain pharmacy records prior to determination of cause of death. This would involve the determination of concentration-to-dose ratios for each hair color group, likely for the hair closest to the scalp. While this creates a more complex analytical scenario than using one standard concentration-to-dose ratio, it also prevents the generation of false positives or negatives based on hair color.

Fig 2. The ratio of concentration of citalopram in the hair segment closest to the skin to estimated dose. (Johansen et. al. 2022)

A technique used to accurately determine drug consumption prior to death would be an incredibly powerful tool, especially in cases where the drug is prescribed and drug abuse or neglect is suspected as the cause of death. This would allow investigators to define the cause of death with more precise, scientifically-sound means rather than gathering information via circumstantial, potentially misleading pharmacy records. The Banner and Johansen groups made important contributions to the development of such a technique, and with additional work this technique could eventually provide justice to those most in need of it.

TitleConcentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in postmortem hair segments
AuthorsKaren Rygaarda, Marie Katrine Klose Nielsen, Kristian Linnet, Jytte Banner, Sys Stybe Johansen
JournalForensic Science International


Researchers searching for a way to track antidepressant usage from postmortem hair find that hair color influences drug retention more than time or length of hair.

Using Hair as an Indicator of Antidepressant Use Post-Mortem — ForensicBites

Different types of Fingerprints via The Legal Conundrum

The study of fingerprints is centuries old and with evolving technology fingerprints have become an accurate and reliable source of human identification as well as a significant part of criminal investigations. Crucially no two individuals have exact same fingerprints. Two fingerprints are identical only if they are both produced by the same finger of the same person. Even identical twins, with identical DNA, have different fingerprints. In this article I cover the fingerprint patterns into which the forensic scientists classify fingerprints according to their characteristics, the law on fingerprints in India, and the Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) used by Investigating Agencies to store and process fingerprints.

Also read: Forensic Science and its Governing Principles and Laws.

The human fingerprint is a unique pattern that is intrinsically linked to each individual. No two fingerprints are identical, which greatly assists in its role in forensic identification. This uniqueness has allowed for various uages of fingerprinting including background checks, biometric security, mass disaster identification, and in particular criminal investigations with forensic science being increasingly used by investigating agencies in establishing the guilt of an accused as well as for exculpatory or elimination purposes. A fingerprint is a reproduction of the ridge formation of a finger on a surface. Identity is established or denied by the minutia of smaller details. The ending ridges, its bifurcations or forking, islands or enclosures, short ridges and dots that make up the patterns, and surrounding friction skin area determine whether or not a fingerprint is made by the same finger. It is not only the appearance of these details in the fingerprint but also their relative position to each other that is a major factor in the identification process.

Fingerprint analysis relies on this unique pattern with forensic scientists having categorised these patterns into distinct groups. A fingerprint classification system groups fingerprints according to their characteristics and therefore helps in the matching of a fingerprint against a large database of fingerprints.

The common terms that will be used, in brief, are as follows:

The covering of bulb of the fingers and thumbs and the palm of hands is called friction skin. The narrow elevated lines on the friction skin are called ridges and they are studded with sweat pores. The depressions between the ridges are known as furrows. The ridges are characterized by minute peculiarities such as ridge endings, bifurcations, enclosures, dots, cross overs, spurs and short ridges. Pattern is the design formed by the ridges in a fingerprint. Core is the innermost or central part or the heart of a pattern. The core of a loop fingerprint pattern may consist either of an even or uneven number of ridges called rods not joined together at the top or may consist of two ridges joined together at their summit called as staple. Whereas, in whorls pattern, circular or elliptical, the center of the first ring is the point of core. In case of spiral, the point from which the spiral begins to revolve is the point of core. The delta is a triangular plot which may be formed either by the bifurcation of a single ridge or by the divergence of two parallel ridges. The number of ridges that cut an imaginary line drawn from the delta to the core, neither the delta nor the core being counted, is known as the ridge count.

Fingerprint Patterns

1. Arch

These occur in about 5% of the encountered fingerprints. An arch is also known as a pattern less pattern. It is a pattern is which the ridges of the finger run continuously from one side of the finger to the other, slightly rising in the centre, making no backward turn.

Normally, there is no delta in an arch pattern but when there is the appearance of a delta, no ridge should intervene between the delta and the core. It is then called an arch approximating loop or a loop without count.

1.1. Plain Arch

Plain Arch

In a plain arch there is consistency of flow. It starts on one side of the finger and the ridge then slightly cascades upward. This almost resembles a wave out on the ocean and then the arch continues its journey along the finger to the other side. The plain arch pattern is the simplest of the fingerprints to discern.

1.2. Tented Arch

Tented Arch

In tented arch, the ridges near the middle may have an upward thrust arranging themselves as it were on both sides of a spine or axis towards which adjoining ridges converge.

The difference between plain arch and tented arch is that the tented arch lies in the ridges in the centre and is not continuous like the plain arch. They have significant up thrusts in the ridges near the middle that arrange themselves on both sides of an axis. The adjoining ridges converge towards this axis and thus appear to form tents.

2. Loop

Left Slant Loop
Right Slant Loop

The loop pattern is observed in almost 60 to 70% of the fingerprints. It is a pattern in which one or more ridges enter on either side, take a diagonal upward course, recurve, touch or pass an imaginary line drawn between the delta and the core, and end or tend to end towards the same side of the pattern.

The ridges make a backward turn in loops but they do not twist. This backward turn or loop is distinguished by how the loop flows on the hand and not by how the loop flows on the card where the imprint is taken. There is one delta and a core, one recurving ridge and at least one ridge count between the delta and the core.

2.1. Ulnar Loop

Loops can be classified as ulnar where it slopes towards the ulna bone, the ulna being on the little finger side. Thus, in ulnar loops, the ridges slant towards the right in case of right-hand fingers and towards the left in case of left-hand fingers.

2.2. Radial Loop

Loops can be classified as radial where it slopes towards the radial bone, the radial being on the thumb side. Thus, in radial loops, the ridges slant towards the left in case of right-hand fingers and towards the right in case of left-hand fingers.

3. Whorl

Plain Whorl

These can be found in about 25 to 35% of the fingerprints that are encountered. A whorl is a pattern in which one or more ridges form a series of circles or spirals around the core. The ridges in these whorls make a turn of one complete circuit with two deltas and are therefore circular or spiral in shape. Plain whorl is the simplest form of whorl and also the most common.

3.1. Central Pocket Loop Whorl

Central Pocket Loop Whorl

In central pocket loop whorl, the ridges immediately above the core deviate in course from the general course of other ridges, making a pocket at the center. These whorls consist of at least one re-curving ridge or an obstruction at right angles to the line of flow with two deltas so that if an imaginary line is drawn in between them no re-curving ridge within the pattern area will be touched or cut. These whorl ridges make one complete circuit and may be oval, circular, spiral or any variant of a circle.

The essential conditions of a central pocket loop whorl are there should be at least one looping ridge, the recurve about the core should be at right angles to the line of exit of the looping ridges, line joining the deltas should not cut any of the recurving ridges, and there should not be more than five recurving ridges.

3.2. Lateral Pocket Loop Whorl

When the ridges constituting the loop bend sharply on one side before recurving, thereby forming on that side an inter space or pocket usually filled by the ridges of another loop, such an impression is termed a lateral pocket loop.

3.3. Double Loop Whorl

Double Loop Whorl

A double loop whorl consists of two distinct and separate loop formations surrounding or encircling the other. It has two distinct and separate shoulders for each core, two deltas and one or more ridges that make a complete circuit. There is at least one re-curving ridge within the inner pattern area between the two loop formations that gets touched or cut when an imaginary line is drawn.

In lateral pocket loop, the ridges containing the points of core have their exits on the same side of either delta, while in double loop the ridges containing the points of core have their exits on different sides of either deltas.

3.4. Accidental Whorl

Accidental Whorl

Accidentals are combinations of two or more patterns too irregular in outline to be grouped in any other pattern.

The composition of the pattern in accidental whorl is derived from two distinct types of patterns that have at least two deltas. Therefore, whorls containing ridges that match the characteristics of a particular whorl sub-grouping are referred to as accidental whorls.

What the law says

Fingerprints and palmprints have been widely recognized and accepted as a reliable means to identify a person. A fingerprint may be left on an object when it is touched which permits the impression to be used for personal identification of individuals in criminal investigations. Thus, the forensic science of fingerprints is utilised by law enforcement agencies in support of their investigations to positively identify the perpetrator of a crime, as well as for exculpatory or elimination purposes.

In India, the law of fingerprinting is covered by the Indian Evidence Act, 1972, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 and the recent Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022.

1. Indian Evidence Act, 1872 and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973

Section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 states that “when the Court has to form an opinion upon a point of foreign law or of science or art, or as identity of handwriting or finger impressions, the opinions upon that point of persons specially skilled in such foreign law, science or art, or in questions as to identity of handwriting or finger impressions are relevant facts. Such persons are called experts.”

As a general rule, the opinion of a witness on a question whether of fact or of law, is irrelevant. A witness has to state the facts which he has seen, heard or perceived, and not the conclusions which he has formed on observing or perceiving them. The function of drawing inferences from facts is a judicial function and must be performed by the Courts. If a witness is permitted to state not only the facts which he has perceived but also the opinion which he has formed on perceiving them, it would amount to delegation of judicial functions to him and investing him with the attributes of a judge.

Sections 45 to 51 of the Act are some important exceptions to this general rule. When “the subject-matter of inquiry is such that inexperienced persons are unlikely to prove capable of forming a correct judgment upon it”, or when “it so far partakes of the character of a science or art as to require a course of previous habit or study”, the opinions of persons having special knowledge of the subject-matter of inquiry become relevant; for it is very difficult for the Court to form a correct opinion on a matter of this kind, without the assistance of such persons.

Section 73 provides that the Court may direct any person present in the Court to give his/her finger impressions to enable the Court to compare such finger impressions with any other finger impressions alleged to have been made by such person.

Section 293 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 exempts Directors of Finger Print Bureau from personal appearance in the Courts for expert testimony. As long as the report of the Director of Finger Print Bureau shows that the opinion was based on observations, it can be accepted without examining the person who gave the report. But if there is any doubt, it can always be decided by the calling of the person making the report

2. The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022

The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022 was passed by the Lok Sabha on 4th April 2022, by the Rajya Sabha on 6th April 2022 and received the President’s assent on 18th April 2022.

The Act authorises taking measurements of convicts and other persons for the purposes of identification and investigation in criminal matters and to preserve records. It widens the power of State and its enforcement agencies during a criminal investigation, with regard to the taking of biometric and other biological data of any person arrested by the police, including persons detained under preventive detention laws. It is a modification of the Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, which stands repealed through Section 10(1) of the 2022 Act.

Section 3 of the 2022 Act allows police officers to collect fingerprints, footprints, biological samples, behavioural attributes including signatures, handwriting and examinations under Sections 53 and 53A of the Code of Criminal Procedure, of any arrested person, including convicts. Such data also includes blood, semen, hair samples, swabs and analyses such as DNA profiling.

While the resistance or refusal to allow the taking of measurements under this Act shall be deemed to be an offence under section 186 of the Indian Penal Code, an exception also states that any person arrested under any law will not be obliged to provide such data, except when they are arrested for any offence committed against women and children or any offence punishable with imprisonment for a period not less than 7 years.

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) will be the central agency to maintain the records.  It will share the data with law enforcement agencies.  Further, States/UTs may notify agencies to collect, preserve, and share data in their respective jurisdictions. Further, Section 4 allows the record of measurements to be retained in digital or electronic form for a period of 75 years from the date of collection of such measurement. Records will be destroyed in case of persons who are acquitted after all appeals, or released without trial. However, in such cases, a Court or Magistrate may direct the retention of details after recording reasons in writing.

Under Section 5 of the Act, a Magistrate is competent to order any person to allow his finger impressions to be taken for the purpose of any investigation or proceeding under the Code of Criminal Procedure.

Automated Fingerprint Identification System

Increase in crime together with the resultant increase in criminal records has made the manual comparison and identification of fingerprints a challenging and arduous task. The manual system of fingerprint identification was unable to keep pace with the enormous increase of the fingerprint records and the number of queries required to be answered every day. The need for an Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) was, therefore, felt by Police Officers and Fingerprint Professionals the world over.

As digital technology progresses, fingerprinting is increasingly being used as a fraud prevention measure. AFIS is a system for storing and processing digital fingerprints. By digitising the fingerprints, found traces can be compared to those recorded in the database. A fully functional AFIS provides the facilities of a database creation, an identification-oriented enquiry that includes ten print to ten print search, chance print to ten print search, ten print to chance print search, and chance print to chance print search, a remote query processing and creation of a criminal attribute database. AFIS is used mainly for two areas, the fingerprint verification and fingerprint identification. For the fingerprint identification, a found or present fingerprint is compared with the stored fingerprints in order to allow identification.

AFIS in India

In India, AFIS was first installed at the Central Finger Print Bureau of the National Crime Records Bureau in 1992. The Indian Version of AFIS is called FACTS, which was co-developed, by NCRB and CMC Ltd. India. The current version of FACTS is 5.0. The system uses image processing and pattern recognition technique to capture, encode, store and match fingerprints, including comparison of chance prints. It uses pattern class, core and delta information, minutiae location, direction, neighbouring information, ridge counts and distances, density, type, print background/foreground information etc. for matching fingerprints.

Criminal attributes such as name with aliases if any, parentage, sex, age, address etc. are also stored in the data base. The database contains all the conviction details i.e. data of conviction, Court, Section, sentence, P.S. FIR No., information regarding absconders and death reports. It has become an important aid to finger print experts in their day-to-day work of updating and querying on large database of fingerprints.

Facilities offered by AFIS

  • Automated ten print search with the trace percentage not to be less than 98.
  • Automated replacement of better quality prints.
  • Automated pattern recognition.
  • Automated ridge direction determination.
  • Automated minutiae, core and delta detection and extraction.
  • Automated minutiae quality assignment.
  • Automated capture of logical rolled print area.
  • Automated capture of logical plain print area and comparison of plain prints with rolled prints.
  • Automated selection of matching digit.
  • Full range of integrated chance print and ten print image enhancements.
  • Manual editing of minutiae and core/delta location(s) and direction(s).
  • Facility to re-edit chance print images without requiring a re-scan.
  • Facility to launch secondary searches.
  • Secondary/temporary database for document case examination.
  • Rotation of chance print images.
  • Side-by-side comparison.
  • User defined search filters.
  • User defined candidate thresholds.
  • Integration of AFIS with personal information system.

Advantages of AFIS

  • Diversifying the functioning of Finger Print Bureau through better utilization of expert manpower.
  • Better management of fingerprint data.
  • The entire database could be searched against chance prints.
  • Replacement of poor quality prints with better quality prints.
  • Less physical handling of finger print record, thus protecting original record from wear & tear.
  • Matching is automatically done by the computer, at a high speed, thus substantially reducing the search time.
  • Networking of AFIS at different levels possible.
  • Automatic enhancement of poor quality prints.
  • More accurate compilation of Statistics.

AFIS Processes

(i) Input or Acquisition or Enrolment

Flat-bed scanners are used for input of Ten Digit Record and Search Slips and Chance Prints. A unique number called the Personal Identification Number (PIN) is generated by the system and a label bearing this number is fixed to the finger print slip or behind the Chance Print photograph. The Ten-digit/Chance print is placed with the probable orientation on the scanner bed and is subjected to preview scan if required to confirm the print position followed by high resolution scanning.

Encoding takes place immediately after the high resolution scan. The features extracted by the system are:

  1. Pattern class and alternate pattern class
  2. Core and Delta points
  3. Minutiae (ridge end points and bifurcation points)
  4. Ridges
  5. Smudge area

(ii) Matching

The basic features used for finger print matching are the minutiae. Each minutiae is characterized by its coordinates, the direction of the ridge flow at the location of the minutiae, the ridge counts between itself and its nearest neighbours. The system extracts the minutiae of each fingerprint automatically. These extracted features represent the fingerprint’s uniqueness. Whenever a fingerprint is to be identified, the system compares the characteristics of the minutiae of that fingerprint against the characteristics of corresponding minutiae in each of the fingerprint in the database. The result of matching is a shortlist in the descending order of probability.

(iii) Verification

In verification, the expert compares a search finger print against short-listed finger prints from the database and identifies the right match. Finger Print images are presented to the expert in the form of split screen display – the search print on one half of the monitor and the short listed print retrieved from the system on the other. The user can select the prints from the shortlist as required. Once the expert is satisfied about the identity, he/she marks it as TRACED or else it is marked as UNTRACED.

(iv) Data Updation

Record slips are updated and stored in the database. If the finger print slip is a new one, the transaction is added to the database and is stored on hard discs. In case a duplicate is already present in the database, the system itself compares the quality of prints of both the slips and the better quality print replaces the other. The old PIN is retained.


The World of Fingerprinting — The Legal Conundrum

Forensics: DNA from letter helps solve 34-year-old cold case murder of Pa. mom — FORENSICS and LAW in FOCUS @ CSIDDS | News and Trends

The cold case murder of a 26-year-old Pennsylvania mother in 1988 has been finally solved thanks to DNA evidence found on a chilling letter. — Read on http://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/dna-letter-helps-solve-34-year-old-cold-case-murder-pa-mom-rcna44185

Forensics: DNA from letter helps solve 34-year-old cold case murder of Pa. mom — FORENSICS and LAW in FOCUS @ CSIDDS | News and Trends

FBI Forensic Science : Incompetence or Malice? — Intel Today

“The FBI could be the most dangerous agency in the country if not scrutinized carefully.”

FBI director Louis Freeh

Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab

August 29 2022 — Last week, FBI Las Vegas tweeted a picture of a special agent fingerprinting child actress Margaret O’Brien during her visit to the FBI in January 1946. This tweet brought back quite some memories… Follow us on Twitter: @Intel_Today

RELATED POST: Forensic science — FBI Bullet-Lead Technique Dead Wrong

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RELATED POST: Two Years Ago –The August 4 2020 Beirut Explosion : Debunking the FBI Conspiracy Theory [UPDATE : Lebanon marks grim anniversary of Beirut explosion]

RELATED POST: Lockerbie — Why I ruled out the bomb theory [Technical Analysis of the Debris Lines]

The fingerprints of Margaret O’Brien brought the total number on file to 100,000,000. Since 1924, the FBI has been the single U.S. repository for fingerprints. Computers were first installed to search these files in 1980.

Since 1999, the FBI has stored and accessed its fingerprint database via the digital IAFIS (Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System), which currently holds the fingerprints and criminal records of over 51 million criminal record subjects and over 1.5 million civil (non-criminal) fingerprint records. US Visit currently holds a repository of the fingerprints of over 50 million non-US citizens. [Vintage photographs show the massive FBI’s fingerprint files, 1944]

Perhaps, you believe that ‘fingerprint evidence’ is rock solid evidence. Allow me to quote a very important analysis [Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab] :

Occasionally, proficiency testing in one specialist area of forensic science exposes widespread incompetence. In 1995, Collaborative Testing Services tested 156 U.S. fingerprint examiners — the cornerstone of forensic science — in a proficiency test sponsored by their professional body, the International Association for Identification. Only 44 percent (68) of those tested identified all seven latent fingerprints correctly. Some 56 percent (88) got at least one wrong, 4 percent (6) of these failing to identify any. In all, incorrect identifications made up 22 percent of the total attempted.

In other words, in more than one in five instances “damning evidence would have been presented against the wrong person,” noted David Grieve, editor of the fingerprinters’ magazine, the Journal of Forensic Identification. Worse still, examiners knew they were being tested and were thus presumably more careful and freer from law enforcement pressures. Calling for immediate action, Grieve concluded: “If one in five latent fingerprint examiners truly possesses knowledge, skill or ability at a level below an acceptable and understood baseline, then the entire profession is in jeopardy.” The same must be true of every suspect in the country, the vast majority of whom never get a fingerprint expert onto their defense team or any chance of a reexamination. Many crime laboratories routinely destroy fingerprint evidence.

It is clear that forensic science is massively error-ridden, while the flaws in the sole laboratory accreditation program designed to improve performance are obvious. ASCLD/LAB has no powers to regulate or inspect a crime lab or to stop a lab that has failed inspection from doing examinations in criminal justice cases.

Many U.S. crime labs have never even risked inspection and the possibility of failing, most notable among them the one that bills itself the premier forensic science laboratory in the world — the FBI lab in Washington.

Sadly, widespread incompetence is just one side of the problem. There is worse, much worse…

“Never attribute to malice that which can be adequately explained by stupidity, but don’t rule out malice.”

Albert Einstein

Did you know? FBI agents intervened in the Shirley McKie case — a former detective wrongly accused of leaving her fingerprint at a murder scene — to urge a cover-up amid fears it could scupper the trial of the Lockerbie bombers.

David Grieve, the senior fingerprint expert at Illinois State Police who helped clear Ms McKie in 1999, said FBI agents had asked him to keep silent before the Lockerbie trial began in the Hague in February 2000.

Mr Grieve said : “I was asked not to mention anything about the case and not to publicise it because we had to think about the higher goal, which was Lockerbie.”

Meanwhile, Allan Bayle, a fingerprint expert formerly of the Metropolitan Police, has said it was his “firm belief” the SCRO’s evidence was “far more likely to be fabrication rather than gross incompetence”.

And now, allow me go back to the Lockerbie Case. Let us discuss the so-called evidence of SEMTEX!

To be continued.

Forensic Science: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO) 


Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab

Lockerbie FBI team urged a cover-up on McKie — The Herald, Feb. 2006


FBI Forensic Science : Incompetence or Malice?

“The FBI could be the most dangerous agency in the country if not scrutinized carefully.” FBI director Louis Freeh Tainting Evidence — Inside the Scandals at the FBI Crime Lab August 29 2022 — Last week, FBI Las Vegas tweeted a picture of a special agent fingerprinting child actress Margaret O’Brien during her visit to […]

FBI Forensic Science : Incompetence or Malice? — Intel Today

Forensics: Genetics and genealogy. Coffee cup helps police crack one of US’s oldest cold cases after 300 interviews since 1975 via FORENSICS and LAW in FOCUS @ CSIDDS

Genealogy researchers traced possible suspect’s DNA to Calabria region of Italy — Read on http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/police-cold-case-coffee-cup-b2127282.html

Forensics: Genetics and genealogy. Coffee cup helps police crack one of US’s oldest cold cases after 300 interviews since 1975 — FORENSICS and LAW in FOCUS @ CSIDDS | News and Trends

Employment Law: What to Know Before You Start a Job — Naomi Soldon

it’s important to understand the legal requirements before applying for any position.

In this article, attorney Naomi Soldon, who has a wide experience in employment law, will answer questions regarding employment law and fill you in on what to expect when you start a new position.

What Are the Different Types of Employment Law?

Naomi Soldon indicates that there are many different types of employment law that you’ll come across in your job search.

Some examples include:

Davis-Bacon Law: This is the law that regulates the way that construction workers are hired and paid. It’s named after Massachusetts congressman Lewis “Boss” Bacon who championed the law during the construction of the U.S. Capitol.

Gross National Product (G.N.P.) Law: This is the law that regulates how much businesses can charge for their products and services.

Human Rights Law: This law protects employees from being mistreated at work. It applies to all employees, not just employees of a specific business.

Health and Safety Law: This law regulates how safe and healthy the workplace is.

Hiring and Employment Law: This covers how an employer finds, hires, and trains an employee. It includes things like how an employer advertises for jobs, what type of job postings to include, and how to go about the process once you’re hired.

How Does Employment Law Apply to Me?

Employment law applies to all employees, whether that person works full time for you part time or on a contract basis. Naomi Soldon points out that if an employee works for you part time, you must comply with the same employment law that applies to full-time employees. For example, if you have a rule that employees must work a certain number of hours each day, even if they work for other companies nearby, you must also follow that rule if you work for the same company as a full-time employee. On the other hand, if you have different employment standards for your part-time employees and full-time employees, those standards

What Is Employment Law?

According to Naomi Soldon, employment law is a branch of legislation that regulates how employers must treat employees. It encompasses a variety of topics, including how long an employee may work for one employer, how employers must treat employees who are on a leave of absence, whether an employer has to provide certain types of medical care, and how long an employer must keep an employee on the job after the employee has exhausted his or her legal rights. Employment law applies to every industry and can be complex, especially if you’re a first-time employee or a new type of job. Many companies have specialized employment departments that manage the different types of employment law issues encountered by their larger company employees. Some employment law experts are invested in trying to expand the scope of employment law to include issues that are unique to certain types of businesses such as management by team or cooperative ventures.

only apply to part-time employees and not to full-time employees.

Bottom line

Employment law is complex and can be daunting to navigate when you’re just starting out in your career. Skilled attorney Naomi Soldon recommends making sure you understand the various types of employment law and how they apply to you so that you don’t accidentally violate the law. Get help from an employment law expert if you’re stuck.

Today, more than ever, people are looking for jobs. The job market is tight and competition for spots is high. Even though the job market is generally strong, it’s not guaranteed that you’ll be able to find a job after graduating from college. If you’re looking for your first job or a new career path, […]

Employment Law: What to Know Before You Start a Job — Naomi Soldon

Serial Killer: Robert Zarinsky killed at least 3-10 people via Bonnie’s Blog of Crime

Police Officer Charles Bernoskie, [11/28/1958] (acquitted at trial)
Mary Ann Klinsky, 18 [9/16/1965] DNA linked him
Jane Katherine Durrua, 13 [11/5/1968] died before trial
Rosemary Calandriello, 17 [8/25/1969] life in prison
Linda Balabanow, 17 [3/27/1969] prime suspect
Joanne Delardo, 15 [12/13/1974] prime suspect
Doreen Ann Carlucci, 14 [12/13/1974] prime suspect

Find-A-Grave: Charles D. Bernoskie
Find-A-Grave: Mary Ann Klinsky
Find-A-Grave: Jane Katherine Durrua
Find-A-Grave: Rosemary K. Calandriello
Find-A-Grave: Joanne Delardo
Find-A-Grave: Doreen Ann Carlucci
New Jersey Girl Murders 1960-1980
Linden Man Held in Slaying of Girl, 16
DNA links suspected serial killer to teen’s 1965 murder in New Jersey
Suspected serial killer tied to 50-year-old homicide
Suspected serial killer investigated in teen’s cold case homicide
A pleasant, not perfect, hometown
Killer’s House Is Searched for Clues in Other Slayings
Suspected serial killer investigated in teen’s cold case homicide
State of New Jersey v Robert Zarinsky 1976 (conviction and sentence affirmed)
Suspected serial killer Robert Zarinsky dies in prison
Robert Zarinsky: Why he’s 1 of N.J.’s most notorious killers
Serial Killers: Robert Zarinsky
Murderpedia: Robert Zarinsky
Wikipedia: Robert Zarinsky
Find-A-Grave: Robert Zarinsky

Robert Zarinsky


Victims Police Officer Charles Bernoskie, [11/28/1958] (acquitted at trial) Mary Ann Klinsky, 18 [9/16/1965] DNA linked him Jane Katherine Durrua, 13 [11/5/1968] died before trial Rosemary Calandriello, 17 [8/25/1969] life in prison Linda Balabanow, 17 [3/27/1969] prime suspect Joanne Delardo, 15 [12/13/1974] prime suspect Doreen Ann Carlucci, 14 [12/13/1974] prime suspect Find-A-Grave: Charles D. Bernoskie […]

Serial Killer: Robert Zarinsky killed at least 3 people, probably closer to 10 — Bonnie’s Blog of Crime